Hapaline Schott
  • Gen. Aroid.: 44 (1858) 

Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: SC. China to W. Malesia

General Description

HABIT : very small, slender, seasonally dormant herbs, tubers small, depressed-globose. LEAVES : 1-few, usually solitary. PETIOLE : sheath short. BLADE : cordate-sagittate, sagittate or hastate, sometimes pale green or silvery variegated; primary lateral veins pinnate or mostly arising at petiole insertion, forming arching submarginal collective vein, 1-2 marginal veins also present, higher order venation reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium, appearing with leaf. PEDUNCLE : subequal or longer than petiole, slender. SPATHE : slender, not distinctly constricted, tube very slender, persistent, tightly convolute around female flowers, blade longer, oblong-lanceolate, erect to reflexed and ± revolute at anthesis, marcescent. SPADIX : subequal or longer than spathe, slender, female zone adnate to spathe, few-flowered (2-7), ± biseriate, separated from male zone by short sterile zone, male zone subulate to cylindric, fertile to apex or with a few sterile flowers at apex or with a long, terminal appendix (H. appendiculata). FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 3-androus, synandrium peltate, truncate, hexagonal, elongated in sense of spadix axis, shallow, stipitate, connective strongly dilated, thecae short, subglobose, remote, almost pendent from margin, dehiscing by pore. POLLEN : inaperturate, spherical, medium-sized (mean 40 µm.), exine rather densely spinose. STERILE FLOWER : lower ones very few, ± remote, apiculiform, upper ones very few, consisting of tiny, peltate synandrodes. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium oblong to lageniform, ovary 1-locular, ovule 1, anatropous, funicle very short, placenta parietal to subbasal (morphologically basal), style very short, stigma subcapitate. BERRY : ellipsoid to globose, style persistent, pericarp thin, 1-seeded, white. SEED : ellipsoid, testa smooth, very thin, embryo large, ellipsoid, light green, endosperm absent.

Diagnostic Description

Small tuberous geophyte; leaf blade not peltate, submarginal collective vein present, finer venation reticulate; female zone of spadix adnate to spathe; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; sterile flowers between male and female zones very few; male flower an elongated, truncate synandrium; gynoecia few, remote, elongated; ovary 1-locular, ovule solitary.


Tropical humid forest; geophytes on forest floor or humus deposits on limestone or basalt rocks.


SC. China to W. Malesia.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Malaya


  • 1 Boyce, P.C., Sookchaloem, D., Hetterscheid, W.L.A., Gusman, G., Jacobsen, N., Idei, T. & Nguyen, V.D. (2012). Flora of Thailand 11(2): 101-325. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 4 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  • C All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.