Evergreen to seasonally dormant helophyte, growing in slow moving streams; stem a vertical rhizome, deeply buried in mud, up to 28 cm long, internodes visible, 2-4 cm diam.; adventitious roots numerous, white, small adventitious tubercles present, but sparse. LEAF solitary; petiole 60-150 X 1-2.2 cm, mottled, rough at base but unarmed; leaf blade trisect, overall dimensions 32-45 X 30-40 cm, each segment pinnatifid to pinnatipartite, often fenestrated, lobules lanceolate to triangular, glossy green adaxially, paler and glossy abaxiaUy; primary lateral veins impressed above, prominent below, secondary veins weakly depressed above, prominulous helow. INFLORESCENCE erect at anthesis, occasionally pendant at fruiting phase, appearing before the leaf or together with it; peduncle 40-60 cm long, erect at anthesis; spathe lanceolate, twisted at apex, 10-12 cm long, 1.6-2 cm wide near base, green, marcescent at fruiting phase; spadix 5--6 cm long, 1-1.2 cm diam. at hase, tapering to apex, green at base and purplish at apex. Flowers 2-2.5 mm long, tepals 2 X 2 mm; pistil obovoid, greenish, unilocular, ovules 1-2, inserted near base, anatropous; berries obovoid, smooth, wine-colored at apex, red to greenish at base, 7-9 X 6-7 mm, with a translucent pulp surrounding the only developed seed; seeds cream- colored, 6-7 X 5-6 mm, strongly curved, testa thick, brain-like laterally, with a ridge in the side opposite to the micropyle, embryo curved, endosperm copious.
Anaphyllopsis cururuana was found growing as an aquatic emergent in a slow moving creek in half shade. The vertical rhizome was deeply buried in the mud of the bottom of creek and the unripe fruit pod was erect. Only a small population was found near the road. In cultivation, the behavior of the plants is still irregular.
Plants lose their leaves once or twice a year and the inflorescences are usually associated with leaves produced in the winter. They are cultivated in plastic pots with a mixture in equal parts of sphagnum, sand and leaf mold, with a little earthworm humus. Pots are kept in shallow containers with water, that is changed regularly to avoid the build up of fertilizer salts. Fertilization is done as proposed by Boos (1993).