Culcasia P.Beauv.
  • Fl. Oware 1: 3 (1805) 


Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Trop. Africa

General Description

Lianescent or creeping, perennial herbs (also subrosulate, erect and terrestrial in West and Central Africa), with tough, slender stems rooting along internodes. Leaves numerous; petiole with well-developed persistent sheath and pulvinate apex; blade simple, lanceolate, ovate, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, with pellucid glandular lines or punctae; venation reticulate, primary lateral veins often forming inframarginal veins. Inflorescences appearing with leaves, 1–many on short sympodial axes, subtended by lanceolate bracts. Spathe erect, ± convolute, sometimes with slight central constriction, ± boat-shaped and gaping at anthesis to expose at least upper part of spadix, usually completely deciduous soon after. Spadix with basal pistillate part separated from apical staminate part by very short sterile zone bearing prismatic staminodes. Flowers unisexual, lacking perigon, usually densely congested. Stamens free, in distinct groups of 2–4, subsessile, truncate; anthers dehiscing by apical pores; connective thick, fleshy. Ovary 1(–3)-locular; ovules 1 per locule; placentation basal to axile; stigma sessile, subglobose to discoid or shallowly lobed. Berries ellipsoid to obovoid or subglobose, usually red, 1(–3)-seeded. Seeds large, ovoid, smooth; endosperm abundant; embryo small, lateral.

Laticifers absent. HABIT : erect, repent or climbing herbs, rooting at least from lower nodes, branches slender. LEAVES : many, often forming terminal crown in terrestrial species. PETIOLE : geniculate apically, geniculum often inconspicuous, sheath persistent, rather long. BLADE : lanceolate or oblanceolate to ovate or ovate-oblong, rarely rounded, rarely pubescent below, resin glands pellucid, linear or punctate; primary lateral veins pinnate, often forming submarginal collective vein, otherwise running into marginal vein, higher order venation reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-12(-20) in each floral sympodium, internodes of floral sympodium sometimes relatively elongated. PEDUNCLE : short to relatively long. SPATHE : erect, green to whitish, boat-shaped, not or hardly constricted, convolute basally, gaping apically at anthesis, deciduous to marcescent. SPADIX : cylindric-clavate, equal to or somewhat longer than spathe, female zone usually densely flowered, rarely laxly, shorter than male zone and either contiguous with it or separated by a laxly flowered zone of sterile male flowers, male zone fertile to apex, axis often persistent in fruit. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 2-4-androus, stamens short, obpyramidal, truncate apically, anthers subsessile, connective thick, thecae oblong, dehiscing by short apical slit. POLLEN : inaperturate, subspheroidal, medium-sized (mean 32 µm., range 27-40 µm.), exine verrucate to rugulate or subreticulate, usually with psilate patches of variable size, rarely spinose. STERILE MALE FLOWERS : with 3-4 obpyramidal, depressed staminodia. FEMALE FLOWER : ovary depressed, 1-3-locular, ovules 1 per locule, anatropous, funicle short, placentae subbasal, stigma sessile, hemispheric-discoid, relatively large, sometimes weakly lobed. BERRY : globose to ellipsoid, 1-3-seeded, mostly red, sometimes orange to greenish-yellow, infructescence subglobose to cylindric. SEED : ovoid to ellipsoid, testa thin, smooth, brown, plumule lateral, superficial, with leaf primordia (C.liberica), endosperm absent.

Diagnostic Description

Root-climbing hemi-epiphytes or creeping terrestrials; petiole geniculate apically; leaf blade with resin canals and reticulate fine venation; spathe boat-shaped, not or hardly constricted; spadix fertile to apex; flowers unisexual, perigon absent; stamens free. Differs from Cercestis in leaf blades always simple, acute to rounded at base, ovaries 1-3 locular, spadix stipitate or sessile, male and female zones sometimes separated by zone of sterile flowers, and lacking flagelliform shoots.

Habitat

Tropical moist and humid forest; usually climbing hemiepiphytes, sometimes terrestrial, terrestrial species tend to occur in damp forest sites.

Distribution

Trop. Africa.

Literature

Fl. Owar. 1: 3 (1805); Engl. in E.P. 21 (IV. 23B): 295 (1905); Hepper in K.B. 21: 315 (1967), 492 (1968)

sensu Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 107 (1980)

Fl. Oware 4 to ed. 3 (1803)5; F.T.A. 8: 173; Engl., Pflanzenr. 4, 23B, Arac.-Pothoid. 295 (1905).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia
  • Sudan
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Zaire

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. Continental Publishing, Deurne.
  • 3 S.J. Mayo (1985) Araceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • 4 F.n. Hepper (1968) Araceae. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3(1)
  • 5 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 6 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
  • B   http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA)
http://kew.org/efloras/
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2004. eFloras: Iridaceae. [online] Available at: http://kew.org/efloras/ [Accessed 2013-08-02]
  • C All Rights Reserved
  • D http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
Flora of West Tropical Aftrica (FWTA)
http://kew.org/efloras/
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2004. eFloras: Iridaceae. [online] Available at: http://kew.org/efloras/ [Accessed 2013-08-02]
  • E All Rights Reserved
  • F http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
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eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • H Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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