HABIT : evergreen herbs, rhizomatous, aerenchymatous stem much-branched, creeping. LEAVES : several to many. PETIOLE : terete, sheath short. BLADE : oblanceolate to oblong, thick; midrib very thick, primary lateral veins pinnate, weakly differentiated, higher order venation parallel-pinnate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary. PEDUNCLE : long, subequal to petiole, erect in fruit. SPATHE : oblong, cuspidate, convolute, erect. SPADIX : stipitate, a little shorter than spathe, female zone very short with a single whorl of flowers, male zone subcylindric, fertile to apex. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : stamens short, prismatic, filaments distinct, connective thickened, thecae oblong, adjacent or opposite, dehiscing by apical pore. POLLEN : inaperturate, ellipsoid, large (mean 59 µm.), exine apparently psilate or verruculate. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium surrounded by whorl of 1-3 shorter prismatic staminodes, ovary 1-2-locular, ovule 1 per locule, anatropous, funicle very short, placenta parietal in 1-locular ovaries, stigma broad, discoid, 4-lobed, concave at centre. BERRY : obovoid to ellipsoid, large, pericarp very thick, green. SEED : large, ellipsoid, testa thin, smooth, embryo large, plumule well-developed, endosperm absent.