Philodendron monsalveae Croat & D.C.Bay
  • Novon 18: 440 (2008) 

Notes: Distribution: Colombia

General Description

Hemiepiphytic; stem appressed-climbing; sap creamy yellow to light tan; internodes smooth, 2–17 x 0.5–3 cm, longer than broad, usually dark green becoming gray-green, occasionally medium green to light reddish brown or tan, epidermis sometimes slightly scurfy and somewhat transversely fissured, drying yellowish tan and flaking; roots several per node, to 33 cm x 3–4 mm (dry), drying dark reddish brown; cataphylls to 35 cm, sometimes 2-ribbed at base but more usually sharply 1-ribbed, obtuse and apiculate at apex, pale green at base, rosy toward apex with pale margins, drying pale tan with light brown mottling, deciduous. LEAVES spreading; petioles 21–33 cm x 5–8 mm (dry), obtusely sulcate at base, becoming terete midway, subterete at apex, dark to olive-green, firm, semiglossy, drying olive-green with longitudinally wrinkled, flaking epidermis; geniculum slightly swollen, to 3 cm, darker than petiole, drying medium to dark brown; blades oblong-elliptic, moderately coriaceous, acuminate at apex, attenuate to truncate at base, 35–57 x 13.5–25 cm, 2.1–2.9(–4)x longer than broad, 1.6– 1.9x longer than petiole; adaxial surface semi-glossy, dark green, often bicolorous, drying dull pale olivegreen; abaxial surface matte, paler than adaxially, drying pale olive-green or tan; midrib flat, pale white, sometimes striate adaxially, narrowly to broadly roundraised and darker abaxially; primary lateral veins 5 to 14 per side, 2.5–4 cm apart, spreading from midrib at 55º– 65º angles, acutely down-turned at midrib, proceeding straight out toward margin, becoming very weak within 1 cm of margin, sunken adaxially, convex and darker than blade abaxially, drying paler than blade adaxially, paler than blade and raised abaxially; minor veins obscure. INFLORESCENCES pendent, enclosed in persistent rosy red prophyll, 3 to 9 per axil alternating with prophylls; peduncle curved, 2–10 cm x 2–4 mm (dry), much shorter than petiole, pale olive to medium green, glossy, somewhat striate, drying dark reddish brown; spathe cherry-red, bluntly rounded, white-apiculate at apex, barely constricted above tube, 4.3– 7.5 cm; spathe blade 3–4.5 cm, cream-colored inside; spathe tube 2–3 cm, cherry-maroon outside, green becoming cherry-red to dark maroon inside, drying medium tan outside, with obvious resin lines above tube inside; spadix exserted at anthesis, tapered at apex, 4–7.7 cm; pistillate portion green to yellow-green with golden stigmas, cylindrical, 1.9–3 cm x 4.5–8 mm; staminate portion creamy white becoming yellowish brown, ellipsoid to clavate, 3–4.7 cm x 8–10 mm at widest point; sterile staminate portion ca. 0.7 x 10–11 mm, slightly paler than fertile staminate portion; pistils 0.8–1 mm diam.; ovary 5- to 6-locular, ovules with basal placentation, 1 per locule; sterile staminate flowers 2 mm, irregular. INFRUCTESCENCE unknown. JUVENILE PLANTS with narrow-elliptic, often falcate leaf blades, white cataphylls, and obscure primary lateral veins.

Diagnostic Description

The species is a member of subgenus Philodendron, section Macrobelium, subsection Glossophyllum, series Glossophyllum and is characterized by its smooth olive to gray stems, narrow-elliptic blades with few primary lateral veins widely spaced and becoming very weak within 1 cm of the margin, and clusters of small, cherry-red inflorescences wrapped in a persistent rosy red prophyll.


It occurs in Tropical rain forest transition to Premontane (T-rf/P), usually growing in dense forest.


Philodendron monsalveae is endemic to Colombia, known only from the western slopes of the Colombian Cordillera Occidental, in the Bajo Calima region.


IUCN Red List category. Conservation for Philodendron monsalveae must be considered as Near Threatened (NT) according to IUCN Red List criteria (IUCN, 2001). Although locally common in the Bajo Calima region, it is not yet known from other sites in Colombia.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Western South America Colombia


  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Croat, T.B., Bay, D.C. & Yates, E.D. New Species of Philodendron (Araceae) from Bajo Calima, Colombia. Novon; a Journal for Botanical Nomenclature. St. Louis, MO 18, 452 (2008).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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