Bakoa P.C.Boyce & S.Y.Wong
  • Bot. Stud. (Taipei) 49: 398 (2008) 

Notes: Distribution: Borneo

General Description

Small rheophytic herbs. STEM condensed. LEAVES several to many together; petiole sheathing only at the extreme base, thence extended into a very narrowly triangular marcescent ligular portion; blade very narrowly elongate-elliptic, rather coriaceous; midrib abaxially prominent with 4-6 very fine but well-differentiated (darker than surrounding tissue) primary lateral veins on each side, these hardlydifferentiated in thickness from the secondary venation and diverging at c. 30°; secondary veins adaxially more or less obscure, abaxially fine and rather faint, running to a thicker marginal vein; tertiary venation forming an inconspicuous tessellate reticulum abaxially. INFLORESCENCE solitary to three together on a single shoot; peduncle erect to arching at anthesis with the spathe slightly down-turned and the spathe opening ventral, declinate post anthesis and during fruiting. SPATHE weakly nodding; more or less oblanceolate, hardly constricted, with a long apiculate tip. SPADIX adnate to the spathe in the lower 1/2-2/3; female zone completely adnate to the spathe on the dorsal side; ovary depressed globose and weakly angular, placentation basal, ovules orthotropous, long-beaked; stigma sessile, narrower than the ovary, button-like, papillate; interpistillar staminodes absent from the female zone; sterile interstice somewhat thicker than the female zone, dorsally adnate to the spathe, composed of large truncate mostly irregularly polygonal staminodes, these also distributed up the dorsal side of the male zone to the spadix apex; male zone subcylindric-ellipsoid, apically narrowly acute and sterile, basally adnate to the spathe on the dorsalside, mostly with only the ventral-most stamens (those exposed by gaping spathe limb) fertile, sometimes more extensively fertile, but always sterile on the dorsal side; stamens crowded, truncate, dumbbell-shaped to irregularly rectangular from above, often with the connective irregularly broadened on one side; thecae each opening through a conspicuous, broad-rimmed pore. INFRUCTESCENCE: Fruiting spathe persistent, at fruit maturity very swiftly drying and thence by reflexing of the spadix the spathe recurving and opening basally and also tearing at the peduncle insertion to expose the fruits, at the same time spathe limb remaining distallyconvolute and still clasping the spadix appendix remains; fruiting peduncle initially declinate, later twisting through 180° and becoming arching-erect; berry depressed globular; seed ellipsoid, micropyle blunt, testa slightly ribbed.


Lithophytic in forest, and rheophytic near streams or waterfalls.


Malesia: endemic to Borneo (Sarawak & West Kalimantan).

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Borneo


  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.