Gigantochloa Kurz ex Munro
  • Trans. Linn. Soc. London 26: 123 (1868) 


Notes: Distribution: S. China to Trop. Asia

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (52/52); 300-1264-2600 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/5), or rooting from lower nodes (1/5), or with aerial roots from the nodes (4/5). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (3/21), or two (1/21), or three (2/21), or several (16/21), or many (2/21); in a horizontal line (1/1); with subequal branches (1/8), or 1 branch dominant (7/8); thinner than stem (1/1). Culm-sheaths persistent (8/30), or tardily deciduous (2/30), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (2/30), or deciduous (18/30); without auricles (2/45), or auriculate (43/45). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (25/47), or narrowly ovate (3/47), or ovate (9/47), or triangular (11/47); constricted at base (4/21), or narrower than sheath (15/21), or as wide as sheath at base (2/21). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (27), or erect (15), or falcate (15). Ligule an eciliate membrane (46), or a ciliolate membrane (8), or a ciliate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate (49), or oblong (11), or ovate (2); herbaceous (49), or chartaceous (8). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/2), or conspicuous (1/2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (54), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (3). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (48/48); clustered at the nodes (48/48); in globose clusters (6/48), or stellate clusters (30/48), or compact unilateral clumps (2/48), or untidy tufts (12/48); with glumaceous subtending bracts (45/48), or spathaceous subtending bracts (3/48); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (48/48); leafy between clusters (1/32), or leafless between clusters (31/32), or leafless between branches (1/32). Fertile spikelets sessile (48/48). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (4/4); 1 fertile florets (5/48), or 2 fertile florets (14/48), or 3 fertile florets (24/48), or 4 fertile florets (23/48), or 5 fertile florets (4/48); without rhachilla extension (6/48), or with diminished florets at the apex (42/48). Spikelets linear (5/48), or lanceolate (35/48), or oblong (3/48), or ovate (9/48); laterally compressed (44/48), or subterete (4/48); 6-15.75-50 mm long; breaking up at maturity (48/48); disarticulating above glumes but not between florets (48/48). Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (43/44), or definite (1/44). Floret callus pubescent (2/3), or pilose (1/3). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (2/48), or two (20/48), or several (35/48); persistent (48/48); shorter than spikelet (48/48). Lower glume ovate (13/13). Lower glume surface glabrous (46/47), or puberulous (1/47), or pubescent (1/47). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/11), or acute (3/11), or acuminate (7/11); muticous (7/13), or mucronate (6/13). Upper glume lanceolate (2/41), or ovate (39/41), or orbicular (1/41). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface glabrous (44/48), or puberulous (1/48), or pubescent (2/48), or pilose (1/48), or hispid (1/48). Upper glume apex obtuse (3/36), or acute (21/36), or acuminate (11/36), or cuspidate (1/36); muticous (22/41), or mucronate (19/41). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (4/4); with palea (4/4). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1/3), or elliptic (1/3), or obovate (1/3); obtuse (1/2), or acuminate (1/2); muticous (1/3), or mucronate (2/3). Fertile lemma lanceolate (7/48), or elliptic (1/48), or oblong (1/48), or ovate (41/48), or orbicular (1/48); chartaceous (45/48), or coriaceous (3/48); without keel (48/48); 8-10 -veined (1/6), or 15-17 -veined (2/6), or 18 -veined (1/6), or 19 -veined (2/6), or 20 -veined (1/6), or 21-27 -veined (2/6), or 28-31 -veined (1/6), or 36-40 -veined (1/6). Lemma surface glabrous (36/48), or puberulous (5/48), or pubescent (6/48), or pilose (1/48). Lemma margins flat (47/48), or convolute (1/48); eciliate (18/48), or ciliolate (9/48), or ciliate (21/48), or pilose (1/48). Lemma apex obtuse (2/48), or acute (24/48), or acuminate (17/48), or cuspidate (3/48), or apiculate (1/48), or rostrate (1/48); muticous (38/48), or mucronate (10/48). Palea 0.9-0.9889-1 length of lemma; 3-9-13 -veined; without keels (4/48), or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (4/48), or 2-keeled (40/48). Palea keels eciliate (11/44), or puberulous (1/44), or ciliolate (16/44), or ciliate (16/44). Palea surface glabrous (41/48), or puberulous (4/48), or pubescent (1/48), or pilose (2/48). Palea apex entire (3/17), or dentate (14/17). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (35/35); barren (35/35); rudimentary (1/32), or lanceolate (31/32). FLOWER Lodicules absent (43/48), or 3 (5/48); glabrous (1/5), or ciliate (4/5). Anthers 6 (48/48), or 7 (1/48). Stigmas 1 (39/40), or 2 (3/40); plumose (32/48), or pubescent (16/48). Ovary unappendaged (17/48), or umbonate (31/48); pubescent on apex (26/30), or pubescent all over (4/30). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (45/45); linear (2/6), or lanceolate (2/6), or oblong (2/6). DISTRIBUTION Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (55).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Puerto Rico
  • Central America Honduras
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.