Elymandra Stapf
  • D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 407 (1919) 

Notes: Distribution: SE. Brazil, Trop. & S. Africa

General Description

HABIT Annual (3), or perennial (3). Culms erect; slender (1/1); 30-162.8-260 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole, or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades stiff (3), or firm (3). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence compound; scanty (4), or paniculate (2). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Spatheole linear; scarious. Racemes single (1), or paired (5); bearing few fertile spikelets (5), or many spikelets (1); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (3), or 2-3 fertile spikelets on each (2), or 4-5 fertile spikelets on each (1), or 6-8 fertile spikelets on each (2), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Spikelet packing crowded (2), or contiguous (2), or lax (2). Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip oblique. Raceme-bases brief (1), or filiform (5); unequal (the longer measured) (5/5). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform. STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (5), or separately deciduous (1). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; separately deciduous. Companion sterile spikelet callus oblong (4), or cuneate (1), or linear (1). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (1/1), or mucronate (1/1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; 5.81-9.684-16 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus linear; pubescent (2), or bearded (4); base obtuse (1), or pungent (5); attached obliquely. GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic; chartaceous; without keels; 7 -veined (2/2). Lower glume surface pubescent (2), or pilose (2), or villous (2). Lower glume apex truncate. Upper glume lanceolate; chartaceous; without keels; 3 -veined (2/2). Upper glume surface pilose. Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (1); muticous (1), or awned; 1 -awned. FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined. Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel. Lemma margins eciliate (5), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex dentate (2), or lobed (4); 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.3583-0.5 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate. Column of lemma awn hispidulous (2), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2), or hirtellous (1). Palea absent or minute. DISTRIBUTION Africa, or South America (1).

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Tanzania
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Somalia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Zaire
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Southeast


  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.