Echinochloa P.Beauv.
  • Ess. Agrostogr.: 53 (1812) 


Notes: Distribution: Cosmopolitan

General Description

HABIT Annual (23/33), or perennial (11/33). Rhizomes absent (29), or elongated (5). Culms erect (18/30), or geniculately ascending (15/30), or decumbent (8/30), or prostrate (1/30), or rambling (1/30); reed-like (1/7), or robust (5/7), or of moderate stature (1/7), or slender (1/7); 10-110.3-400 cm long; spongy (3), or compressible (3), or firm (28), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (4/8), or rooting from lower nodes (8/8). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or channelled (1/3). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (5/7), or sparse (5/7), or ample (1/7). Ligule a fringe of hairs (20), or absent (15). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (33). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (8/8). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (33), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; not compacted (33), or in a multilateral false spike (1); appressed (6), or erect (8), or ascending (26), or spreading (2); unilateral; bearing 10-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis wingless (32), or narrowly winged (2); angular (24), or subterete (10). Spikelet packing adaxial (1/1); crowded (14), or contiguous (18), or lax (2); 2 -rowed (7), or 3 -rowed (6), or 4 -rowed (32), or 5 -rowed (4), or 6 -rowed (3). Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary (3), or in pairs (31), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (5). Fertile spikelets sessile (17), or sessile and pedicelled (4), or pedicelled (13); 2-4 in the cluster (5/5); subequal (18/18). Pedicels oblong (3/3); tip discoid (8/8). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or ovate (16), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (20), or turgidly plano-convex (1), or plano-convex (2); 1.5-4.163-7.5 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (32). Spikelet callus brief (30), or oblong (3), or globular (1); free from lower glume (30), or incorporating lowest rhachilla internode with adnate lower glume (4). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (32), or elongated between glumes (2). GLUMES Glumes reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate (33), or oblate (1); clasping (20/20); membranous (16/16), or chartaceous (2/16); without keels; 3 -veined (23/32), or 4 -veined (19/32), or 5 -veined (27/32), or 6 -veined (2/32), or 7 -veined (3/32). Lower glume surface smooth (16), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (15), or spinose (3); glabrous (22), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (3), or hispidulous (7), or hispid (5). Lower glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (14), or acuminate (7), or cuspidate (17); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Upper glume elliptic (9), or ovate (26); not gibbous (33), or gibbous (1); membranous (32), or chartaceous (2); without keels; 3-4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (30), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (9), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (3). Upper glume surface smooth (23), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (7), or spinose (5); glabrous (11), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (4), or hispidulous (16), or hispid (6); with simple hairs (24/26), or tubercle-based hairs (4/26). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/33), or acute (3/33), or acuminate (11/33), or cuspidate (19/33), or caudate (2/33); muticous (30), or mucronate (4), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (19), or barren (20); with palea (29), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (8), or ovate (26); membranous (32), or chartaceous (3); 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (28), or 6 -veined (8), or 7 -veined (13), or 9 -veined (1); without grooves (33), or sulcate (1); obtuse (3), or acute (7), or acuminate (18), or attenuate (1), or cuspidate (10); muticous (20), or mucronate (1), or awned (24). Fertile lemma elliptic (9), or oblong (1), or ovate (24), or orbicular (1); not gibbous (7), or gibbous (27); coriaceous (1), or indurate (33); of similar consistency above (4), or much thinner above (30); without keel; 5 -veined (23/23). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4). Lemma surface smooth (32), or striate (3). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (2), or acute (15), or acuminate (2), or cuspidate (8), or apiculate (4), or rostrate (3); without ornament (7), or laterally pinched (25), or scabrous (2); muticous (33), or mucronate (1). Palea reflexed at apex; 1 length of lemma; coriaceous (1), or indurate (33). FLOWER Anthers 3. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (14/14); ellipsoid (5/8), or oblong (5/8), or ovoid (1/8), or orbicular (1/8). Embryo 0.5-0.6825-0.8 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (16), or Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (8), or Australasia (18), or Pacific (5), or North America (11), or South America (11).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Kazan-retto
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Western Australia
  • Europe Eastern Europe Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Western Canada Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Marianas
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Samoa
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Western Indian Ocean Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate Russian Far East Magadan
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Christmas I.
  • Papuasia Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia Norfolk Is.
  • Victoria
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • North European Russia
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Newfoundland
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marshall Is.
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Society Is.
  • Tubuai Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Gilbert Is.
  • New Caledonia
  • Niue
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
  • Wallis-Futuna Is.
  • Southern America Caribbean Aruba
  • Bahamas
  • Bermuda
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Southwest Caribbean
  • Turks-Caicos Is.
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Southern South America Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Western South America Galápagos

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • B Maria Vorontsova, RBG Kew www.creativecommons.org#Attribution CC BY
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.