Dinochloa Buse
  • F.A.W.Miquel, Pl. Jungh.: 387 (1854) 


Notes: Distribution: Hainan, Taiwan, E. Himalaya to W. & C. Malesia

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short; pachymorph. Culms erect (1/21), or prostrate (1/21), or scandent (20/21); 40-1648-3899 cm long; woody; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes swollen (7/7). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement several (21/31), or many (10/31); with subequal branches (1/25), or 1 branch dominant (24/25); as thick as stem (25/25). Culm-sheaths persistent (1/15), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (7/15), or deciduous (7/15); without auricles (8/23), or auriculate (15/23). Culm-sheath blade lanceolate (9/30), or narrowly ovate (11/30), or ovate (7/30), or triangular (3/30); constricted at base (5/16), or narrower than sheath (1/16), or as wide as sheath at base (2/16), or cordate (8/16). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (17), or erect (10), or falcate (10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (31), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (3). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades lanceolate (32), or oblong (4). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (30), or with obscure cross veins (2), or with distinct cross veins (5). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (31/31); clustered at the nodes (31/31); in globose clusters (14/31), or stellate clusters (1/31), or oblong clusters (3/31), or compact unilateral clumps (7/31), or untidy tufts (6/31); with glumaceous subtending bracts (31/31); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (31/31); leafy between clusters (1/31), or leafless between clusters (5/31), or leafless between branches (25/31). Fertile spikelets sessile (31/31). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (31/31); without rhachilla extension (30/31), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1/31). Spikelets lanceolate (2/31), or elliptic (10/31), or oblong (18/31), or ovate (1/31); laterally compressed (31/31); 1.66-3.438-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity (31/31); disarticulating below each fertile floret (31/31). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (2/31), or two (24/31), or several (5/31); persistent (31/31); shorter than spikelet (31/31). Lower glume oblong (1/28), or ovate (12/28), or orbicular (5/28), or oblate (10/28); 0.5-1.5-2 length of upper glume; chartaceous (6/6); without keels (6/6); 3 -veined (4/9), or 5 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 9 -veined (1/9). Lower glume surface glabrous (28/29), or puberulous (1/29). Lower glume apex emarginate (2/27), or truncate (10/27), or obtuse (5/27), or acute (8/27), or acuminate (1/27), or cuspidate (1/27); muticous (22/28), or mucronate (6/28). Upper glume oblong (1/30), or ovate (15/30), or orbicular (1/30), or oblate (13/30); 0.4-1.675-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (7/7); without keels (7/7); 1-4 -veined (1/9), or 5 -veined (3/9), or 6 -veined (1/9), or 7 -veined (4/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10-11 -veined (1/9), or 13 -veined (1/9). Upper glume surface glabrous (30/31), or puberulous (1/31). Upper glume apex emarginate (2/30), or truncate (9/30), or obtuse (3/30), or acute (9/30), or acuminate (1/30), or cuspidate (6/30); muticous (22/30), or mucronate (8/30). FLORETS Fertile lemma oblong (13/31), or ovate (7/31), or orbicular (9/31), or oblate (2/31); chartaceous (1/31), or coriaceous (30/31); without keel (31/31); 1-4 -veined (1/16), or 5 -veined (5/16), or 6 -veined (2/16), or 7 -veined (10/16), or 9 -veined (2/16), or 15-19 -veined (1/16). Lemma surface glabrous (30/31), or pubescent (1/31). Lemma margins flat (30/31), or convolute (1/31); exposing palea (30/31), or covering most of palea (1/31). Lemma apex emarginate (1/31), or truncate (7/31), or obtuse (7/31), or acute (11/31), or acuminate (1/31), or cuspidate (4/31); muticous (29/31), or mucronate (2/31). Palea present (31/31), or absent or minute (1/31); not rolled (1/31), or involute (29/31), or tightly convolute around flower (1/31); 1-1.066-1.2 length of lemma; hyaline (1/31), or chartaceous (1/31), or coriaceous (29/31); 4 -veined (2/12), or 5 -veined (1/12), or 6 -veined (6/12), or 7 -veined (1/12), or 8 -veined (5/12), or 9 -veined (1/12); without keels (29/31), or 2-keeled (2/31). Palea surface glabrous (31/31), or puberulous (1/31). FLOWER Lodicules absent (20/24), or 3 (4/24); membranous (1/1); glabrous (1/4), or ciliate (3/4). Anthers 6 (31/31). Stigmas 2 (2/28), or 3 (27/28). Ovary unappendaged (12/31), or umbonate (18/31), or with a steeple-like appendage (1/31); glabrous (16/16). FRUIT Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (1/28), or fleshy pericarp (27/28); oblong (5/20), or ovoid (1/20), or orbicular (13/20), or obovoid (1/20); isodiametric (16/16); smooth (9/12), or rugose (4/12). DISTRIBUTION Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (34).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.