Dinebra Jacq.
  • Fragm. Bot.: 77 (1809) 

Notes: Distribution: Africa to India, Andaman and Nicobar Is., S. Pacific

General Description

HABIT Annual. Culms erect (1/1), or geniculately ascending (1/1); 15-65.83-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliolate membrane. INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes borne along a central axis; spreading, or deflexed (2); linear, or oblong (1), or cuneate (1); unilateral; bearing few fertile spikelets (1), or many spikelets; bearing 2-20 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis persistent (2), or deciduous from axis (1); wingless (2), or narrowly winged (1); flattened (1/2), or angular (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets appressed; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets, or 3 fertile florets (2), or 4 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 3.2-5.233-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. GLUMES Glumes persistent; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (2), or recurved at apex (1). Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); 0.9-0.9667-1 length of upper glume; membranous (1), or coriaceous (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined, or 2-3 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (2), or distinct (1). Lower glume apex acute (1), or attenuate (1), or caudate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1); 1.5-2.583-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1), or coriaceous (2); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (1). Upper glume apex acute (1), or attenuate (1), or caudate (1). FLORETS Fertile lemma ovate; membranous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein pubescent. Lemma margins pubescent. Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/2), or obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2); muticous (1), or mucronate (2). Palea 0.8-0.85-0.9 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/2); isodiametric (2/2); trigonous (2/2). DISTRIBUTION Africa, or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1).

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Egypt
  • Libya
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Burkina
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent India
  • Pakistan
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Pacific South-Central Pacific Marquesas
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Western Indian Ocean Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Australasia Australia Queensland
  • Europe Middle Europe Czechoslovakia
  • Northern America Southeastern U.S.A. Maryland
  • North Carolina


  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.