Dichanthium Willemet
  • Ann. Bot. (Usteri) 18: 11 (1796) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop. Old World

General Description

HABIT Annual (5), or perennial (17). Rhizomes absent (21), or short (1). Culms erect (12/19), or geniculately ascending (7/19), or decumbent (4/19); of moderate stature (1/3), or slender (1/3), or weak (1/3); 10-54.77-150 cm long; firm (18), or wiry (4); rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-internodes channelled (3/3). Lateral branches lacking (5/10), or sparse (3/10), or ample (4/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (21), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (12), or a ciliolate membrane (10). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (3), or firm (19); without exudate (21), or pruinose (1). Leaf-blade midrib evident (1/5), or conspicuous (2/5), or widened (2/5). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence simple (21), or compound (1); linear (1/1). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (21), or terminal and axillary (1); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20), or a spatheole (2); exserted (20), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (2/2); herbaceous (1/1). Peduncle widened at apex (1/1). Racemes single (14), or paired (7), or digitate (13), or borne along a central axis (1); bearing 5-10 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 15-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/2). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (4/20), or subterete (16/20). Rhachis internodes filiform (10), or linear (12). Rhachis internode tip transverse (3/5), or oblique (2/5); flat (3/3). Raceme-bases brief (13), or filiform (9). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (10), or linear (12). STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets absent (9), or well-developed (15). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent (2/19), or separately deciduous (17/19). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or obovate (2); dorsally compressed; 2-4.371-8.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (20), or square (1), or cuneate (1); pubescent (7), or pilose (12), or bearded (3); base obtuse; attached transversely (19), or attached obliquely (3). GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (8), or oblong (12), or ovate (1), or obovate (2); chartaceous (12), or cartilaginous (7), or coriaceous (3); without keels; wingless (18), or winged on keel (2), or winged on margins (2); 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (2/14), or 6 -veined (5/14), or 7 -veined (8/14), or 8 -veined (6/14), or 9 -veined (5/14), or 11 -veined (1/14), or 14-18 -veined (1/14). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (21). Lower glume surface convex (12), or flat (6), or concave (6), or with a longitudinal median groove (1); smooth (18), or asperulous (1), or tuberculate (4); without pits (18), or pitted (4); glabrous (13), or pubescent (5), or pilose (5), or hirsute (1), or villous (1); without hair tufts (19), or with a transverse fringe of hair (5). Lower glume apex entire (20), or dentate (2); 3 -fid (1/1); truncate (5/16), or obtuse (9/16), or acute (7/16), or attenuate (1/16). Upper glume lanceolate (18), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2); membranous (1/5), or chartaceous (2/5), or cartilaginous (1/5), or coriaceous (1/5); with undifferentiated margins (21), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (3/21), or 1-keeled (18/21); 1 -veined (2/15), or 3 -veined (13/15). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (1); glabrous (21), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex entire (20), or erose (1), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (1/10), or acute (6/10), or acuminate (3/10); muticous (20), or mucronate (2), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1/9), or lanceolate (1/9), or elliptic (2/9), or oblong (4/9), or ovate (3/9); hyaline; 0 -veined (8/9), or 3-5 -veined (1/9); obtuse (3/4), or acute (2/4). Fertile lemma linear; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (19/19). Lemma margins eciliate (21), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (20), or dentate (2), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (4/4); incised 0.2-0.43-0.66 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (20), or from a sinus (4); geniculate. Column of lemma awn glabrous (20), or puberulous (2). Palea absent or minute. FLOWER Anthers 2 (3/20), or 3 (17/20). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (10/10); ellipsoid (1/6), or oblong (2/6), or ovoid (1/6), or obovoid (3/6). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1). DISTRIBUTION Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (17), or Australasia (8), or Pacific (5), or North America (3), or South America (3).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Ivory Coast
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Senegal
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • Pacific Southwestern Pacific New Caledonia
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Madeira
  • Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • St.Helena
  • Western Indian Ocean Chagos Archipelago
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Nansei-shoto
  • Europe Middle Europe Czechoslovakia
  • Southeastern Europe Kriti
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Florida
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • Marshall Is.
  • South-Central Pacific Easter Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Nauru
  • Niue
  • Tonga
  • Southern America Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Guyana
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Paraguay
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.