Dendrocalamus Nees
  • Linnaea 9: 476 (1835) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop. Asia

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (61); pachymorph (61/61). Culms erect (54/58), or arching (1/58), or leaning (5/58), or scandent (2/58); 150-1424-3300 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (7/26), or with prop roots (1/26), or rooting from lower nodes (4/26), or with root dots on the nodes (1/26), or with aerial roots from the nodes (19/26). Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (5/8), or swollen (3/8). Lateral branches suffrutescent (1), or dendroid (61). Branch complement one (2/30), or three (1/30), or several (11/30), or many (16/30); in a horizontal line (1/2), or in an irregular line (1/2); with subequal branches (3/20), or 1 branch dominant (14/20), or 2 branches dominant (2/20), or 3 branches dominant (4/20); thinner than stem (4/4). Culm-sheaths persistent (3/35), or tardily deciduous (2/35), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (2/35), or deciduous (30/35); without auricles (19/39), or auriculate (21/39). Culm-sheath blade linear (2/46), or lanceolate (24/46), or narrowly ovate (2/46), or ovate (11/46), or triangular (9/46); constricted at base (2/10), or narrower than sheath (6/10), or as wide as sheath at base (2/10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (54), or erect (2), or falcate (8). Ligule an eciliate membrane (55), or a ciliolate membrane (7), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (5), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (59). Leaf-blades persistent (60), or deciduous at the ligule (2); linear (4), or lanceolate (41), or elliptic (1), or oblong (23), or ovate (2); herbaceous (59), or chartaceous (3). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (7/7). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (48), or with obscure cross veins (4), or with distinct cross veins (10). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (52/52); clustered at the nodes (52/52); in globose clusters (40/52), or stellate clusters (5/52), or oblong clusters (3/52), or untidy tufts (4/52); with glumaceous subtending bracts (50/52), or spathaceous subtending bracts (2/52); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (52/52); leafy between clusters (1/47), or leafless between clusters (39/47), or leafless between branches (8/47). Fertile spikelets sessile (52/52). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1-4-10 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (49/51), or with diminished florets at the apex (4/51). Spikelets lanceolate (22/52), or elliptic (2/52), or oblong (3/52), or ovate (28/52); laterally compressed (50/52), or subterete (2/52); 3.5-10.82-35 mm long; breaking up at maturity (52/52); disarticulating below each fertile floret (52/52). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (51/52), or elongated between glumes (1/52); suppressed between florets (42/47), or definite (5/47). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (7/52), or one the upper absent or obscure (1/52), or two (31/52), or several (23/52); persistent (52/52); shorter than spikelet (52/52). Lower glume ovate (32/34), or orbicular (2/34); 0.7-0.875-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous (25/28), or coriaceous (3/28); without keels (24/27), or 1-keeled (3/27); 9-10 -veined (1/5), or 11-12 -veined (2/5), or 13 -veined (3/5), or 14-155 -veined (1/5). Lower glume surface glabrous (41/49), or puberulous (4/49), or pubescent (4/49). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/27), or acute (22/27), or acuminate (2/27); muticous (29/34), or mucronate (5/34). Upper glume lanceolate (1/44), or ovate (40/44), or orbicular (1/44), or oblate (1/44), or obovate (1/44); 0.6-0.8-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (35/36), or coriaceous (1/36); without keels (32/35), or 1-keeled (3/35); 5 -veined (1/7), or 9 -veined (3/7), or 10-12 -veined (2/7), or 13-14 -veined (1/7), or 15 -veined (2/7), or 16 -veined (1/7). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (50/52), or ciliolate (1/52), or ciliate (1/52). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (3/3). Upper glume surface glabrous (44/52), or puberulous (4/52), or pubescent (4/52). Upper glume apex obtuse (4/39), or acute (21/39), or acuminate (14/39); muticous (36/44), or mucronate (8/44). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (1/1). Fertile lemma ovate (44/52), or orbicular (6/52), or oblate (1/52), or obovate (1/52); without auricles (51/52), or auriculate at base (1/52); membranous (1/52), or chartaceous (49/52), or coriaceous (2/52); without keel (50/52), or keeled (2/52); 7-9 -veined (1/9), or 11 -veined (1/9), or 12-13 -veined (2/9), or 14-15 -veined (1/9), or 16-17 -veined (4/9), or 18-19 -veined (3/9), or 20 -veined (2/9), or 25 -veined (1/9). Lemma surface smooth (51/52), or scaberulous (1/52); unwrinkled (50/52), or rugose (2/52); glabrous (38/52), or puberulous (6/52), or pubescent (5/52), or pilose (4/52). Lemma margins flat (51/52), or convolute (1/52); eciliate (31/52), or ciliolate (2/52), or ciliate (19/52). Lemma apex obtuse (5/50), or acute (24/50), or acuminate (19/50), or attenuate (1/50), or apiculate (1/50); muticous (32/52), or pungent (1/52), or mucronate (18/52), or awned (4/52); 1 -awned (4/4). Principal lemma awn attenuate (21/22), or pungent (1/22). Palea 0.9-0.975-1 length of lemma; membranous (4/52), or chartaceous (48/52); 2-3 -veined (1/16), or 4 -veined (5/16), or 5 -veined (4/16), or 6 -veined (5/16), or 7 -veined (6/16), or 8 -veined (3/16), or 9 -veined (2/16); without keels (6/52), or 2-keeled but the uppermost without keels (46/52), or 2-keeled (2/52). Palea keels eciliate (16/48), or puberulous (1/48), or ciliolate (10/48), or ciliate (21/48). Palea surface glabrous (39/52), or puberulous (4/52), or pubescent (4/52), or pilose (5/52). Palea apex entire (1/5), or dentate (5/5). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (2/2); barren (3/3). FLOWER Lodicules absent (48/49), or 1 (3/49), or 2 (2/49), or 3 (1/49); glabrous (2/4), or ciliate (2/4). Anthers 3-5 (1/52), or 6 (52/52). Stigmas 1 (50/52), or 2 (3/52), or 3 (2/52); plumose (36/52), or pubescent (16/52). Ovary unappendaged (25/52), or umbonate (27/52); glabrous (3/34), or with a few apical hairs (1/34), or pubescent on apex (23/34), or pubescent all over (9/34). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (51/51); oblong (2/10), or ovoid (6/10), or orbicular (1/10), or obovoid (2/10); apex rostrate (2/2). Hilum linear (1/1); 1 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (31), or Tropical Asia (41), or Pacific (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Tibet
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sumatera
Introduced into
  • Africa West Tropical Africa Togo
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Asia-Tropical Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Bahamas
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Honduras
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Ecuador

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.