Danthonia DC.
  • J.B.A.M.de Lamarck & A.P.de Candolle, Fl. Franç., ed. 3, 3: 32 (1805) 


Notes: Distribution: Macaronesia, Europe to Caucasus, N. Africa, Russian Far East, Temp. & Subtrop. America

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (18), or short (7), or elongated (1). Culms erect (16/18), or geniculately ascending (4/18), or decumbent (2/18); slender (1/1); 4-38.79-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (3/3). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent (24), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (9), or linear (17); stiff (1), or firm (24). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (22), or comprising only a few spikelets (6). Panicle open (18/22), or contracted (6/22). Spikelets appressed (2/3), or ascending (1/3), or spreading (1/3), or deflexed (1/3); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2-5-10 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (22), or oblong (1), or cuneate (2); laterally compressed; 6.5-15.72-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (2), or evident (23); pubescent (11), or pilose (14), or bearded (3); truncate (1), or obtuse. GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (6), or exceeding apex of florets (19); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (24), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (4), or lanceolate (22), or ovate (1); 0.8-1-1.2 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels (24), or 1-keeled (1); 3 -veined (20), or 4 -veined (11), or 5 -veined (16), or 6-7 -veined (6). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (23). Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6), or acuminate (19), or attenuate (1). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (22), or ovate (1); 0.75-2.179-7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; with undifferentiated margins (22), or hyaline margins (3); without keels (24), or 1-keeled (1); 3 -veined (16), or 4 -veined (8), or 5 -veined (15), or 6 -veined (4), or 7 -veined (6). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6), or acuminate (19), or attenuate (1). FLORETS Fertile lemma elliptic (22), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); chartaceous (19), or coriaceous (6); of similar consistency on margins (23), or much thinner on margins (2); without keel; 5 -veined (13/21), or 7 -veined (4/21), or 8 -veined (3/21), or 9 -veined (7/21), or 10-11 -veined (1/21). Lemma midvein eciliate (24), or ciliate (1). Lemma surface glabrous (10), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11); without hair tufts (23), or with marginal hair tufts (2). Lemma margins eciliate (7), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (14), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex dentate (1), or lobed (24); 2 -fid; incised 0.25-0.4233-0.66 of lemma length; acute (1/2), or acuminate (1/2); mucronate (1), or awned (24); 1 -awned (4/24), or 3 -awned (20/24). Principal lemma awn from a sinus; straight (1), or curved (1), or geniculate (23). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (18/18). Palea 0.5-0.8333-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (24/24). Palea keels wingless (22), or winged (3); smooth (23), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (1); eciliate (9), or ciliolate (16). Palea surface glabrous (20), or pubescent (1), or pilose (4). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (24), or distinct from fertile (1); 1 in number (1/1); barren (1/1); rudimentary (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 2; fleshy; glabrous (23), or ciliate (5); truncate (1/1). Anthers 3. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (6/8), or ovoid (1/8), or obovoid (1/8). Embryo 0.33-0.4263-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (2/24), or linear (22/24); 0.2-0.2883-0.33 length of caryopsis. CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (6), or present (19); in upper sheaths (2/19), or in lower sheaths (18/19). DISTRIBUTION Europe (2), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (3), or Australasia (1), or North America (10), or South America (16).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Russian Far East Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Magadan
  • Western Asia Turkey
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece (Doubtful)
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Greenland
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Caribbean Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Central America Guatemala
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Australasia Australia Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.