Cynosurus L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 72 (1753) 


Notes: Distribution: Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to C. Asia and W. Himalaya

General Description

HABIT Annual (7), or perennial (2). Rhizomes absent (8), or elongated (1). Culms erect (4/5), or geniculately ascending (4/5); 5-41.11-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (8), or coriaceous (1); stiff (2), or firm (6), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous, or pungent (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (8), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (4), or spiciform (3), or capitate (2). Spikelets in pairs, or in threes (1). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster, or 2 in the cluster (1). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet glumes mucronate (1/1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (4), or 2 fertile florets (7), or 3 fertile florets (6), or 4-5 fertile florets (3); with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (6), or cuneate (4); laterally compressed; 2.3-5.273-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (6), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (2). Lower glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.8-0.9625-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled (8/8); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1). Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5). Upper glume linear (4), or lanceolate (7); 0.75-1.246-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (2), or membranous (6), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (8), or hyaline margins (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (7), or 2 -veined (2). Upper glume surface smooth (8), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (5); 1 -awned (5/5). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or oblong (4), or ovate (4); chartaceous (5), or coriaceous (4); without keel; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (2), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (3); glabrous (7), or pubescent (1), or hispid (1). Lemma apex entire (5), or dentate (5); 2 -fid (5/5); emarginate (2/6), or obtuse (4/6), or acute (2/6); muticous (1), or awned (8); 1 -awned (8/8). Principal lemma awn apical (4/8), or from a sinus (5/8). Palea 1 length of lemma. Palea keels smooth (6), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (2). Palea apex dentate (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (3/3); membranous (1/1); acute (1/1). Anthers 3 (8/8). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (8/8); oblong (5/5), or ovoid (1/5); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.1-0.22-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/5), or elliptic (1/5), or linear (1/5); 0.2-0.35-0.5 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (2), or South America (2), or Antarctica (2).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Selvagens
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Middle Asia Turkmenistan
  • Western Asia Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent West Himalaya
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Amsterdam-St.Paul Is.
  • Falkland Is.
  • Asia-Temperate China China Southeast
  • Siberia Irkutsk
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Antipodean Is.
  • Chatham Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Northwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Western Canada British Columbia
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Uruguay

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.