Cortaderia Stapf
  • Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 22: 396 (1897) 


Notes: Distribution: C. & S. Trop. America to Subantarctic Is.

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (19), or short (1). Culms erect (6/6), or geniculately ascending (1/6); robust (2/2); 20-127.7-300 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (12/12). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous with part of sheath attached (1); herbaceous (15), or coriaceous (5); stiff (8), or firm (12). Leaf-blade apex muticous (18), or pungent (2). INFLORESCENCE Gynodioecious ("male", in this context, indicating the bisexual state), or dioecious (4). Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (14), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (9). Panicle open (13), or contracted (6), or spiciform (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled (4/4). Pedicels filiform (2/2). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (6), or 3-4 fertile florets (14), or 5 fertile florets (10), or 6 fertile florets (6), or 7 fertile florets (3), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or oblong (1), or cuneate (11); laterally compressed; 7-13.46-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident (13), or elongated (7); pubescent (1), or pilose (10), or bearded (9). GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (17), or reaching apex of florets (4), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (19); parallel to lemmas (9), or gaping (11). Lower glume linear (6), or lanceolate (15); 0.75-0.9513-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); without keels (18/18); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined (18), or 2 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins absent (18), or obscure (2), or distinct (2). Lower glume surface smooth (12), or asperulous (8). Lower glume apex entire, or dentate (8); 2 -fid (8/8); obtuse (2/18), or acute (8/18), or acuminate (3/18), or attenuate (6/18). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (6), or lanceolate (14); 0.66-1.36-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); without keels (17/17); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined (18), or 2 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (4). Upper glume surface smooth (12), or asperulous (8). Upper glume apex entire (18), or dentate (9); 2 -fid (9/9); obtuse (2/17), or acute (7/17), or acuminate (3/17), or attenuate (6/17). FLORETS Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear (2), or lanceolate (14), or ovate (6); hyaline (9), or membranous (11); without keel; 3 -veined (12/19), or 4 -veined (4/19), or 5 -veined (9/19), or 6 -veined (2/19), or 7 -veined (4/19). Lemma midvein extending to apex (1/1). Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (11), or scaberulous (9); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (8), or plumose (10). Lemma margins eciliate (12), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (6). Lemma apex entire (8), or dentate (2), or lobed (11); 2 -fid (12/13), or 3 -fid (1/13); incised 0.25-0.4333-0.6 of lemma length; acuminate (9/15), or attenuate (4/15), or setaceously attenuate (2/15); muticous (7), or mucronate (1), or awned (15); 1 -awned (12/15), or 3 -awned (3/15). Principal lemma awn apical (10/15), or from a sinus (5/15); straight (12/15), or curved (2/15), or geniculate (1/15). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea 0.3-0.6419-2 length of lemma; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); 2 -veined (18/18). Palea keels smooth (16), or scabrous (4); eciliate (6), or ciliolate (13), or villous (1). Palea surface glabrous (10), or pubescent (1), or pilose (10). Palea apex entire (1/5), or dentate (5/5). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped. FLOWER Lodicules 2; fleshy; glabrous (11), or ciliate (9). Anthers 3 (15/15). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). Hilum elliptic (1/1). MALE Male inflorescence terminal (1/1); similar to female (17/17); a panicle (13/13). Male spikelets resembling female (8/13), or distinct from female (5/13). DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America, or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Falkland Is.
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Guyana
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northern Africa Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China Southeast
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Western Asia Cyprus
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Jawa
  • Philippines
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Northern Europe Great Britain
  • Southeastern Europe Kriti
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Northeastern U.S.A. New Jersey
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Oregon
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Utah
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Northeast
  • Central America Honduras

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
TreeBASE
http://treebase.org/treebase-web/home.html
  • C All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.