Chondrosum Desv.
  • Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. Paris 2: 188 (1810) 


Notes: Distribution: Temp. & Subtrop. America

General Description

HABIT Annual (4), or perennial (14). Rhizomes absent (14), or short (3). Stolons absent, or present (3). Culms erect (8), or geniculately ascending (8), or decumbent (5); slender (5/5); 3-39.4-140 cm long; firm (13), or wiry (4); without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/3), or ample (1/3). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (14). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes. Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (1/1). Racemes single (6), or borne along a central axis (14); erect (3), or ascending (13), or spreading (2); linear, or oblong (2); unilateral; bearing 7-35-100 fertile spikelets on each. Central inflorescence axis tip without extension (14/14), or subulate (2/14). Rhachis flattened (3/15), or semiterete (12/15); terminating in a spikelet (10), or sterile spikelet (2), or barren extension (5); extension subulate (3/5), or bristle-like (2/5). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (13), or contiguous (2), or lax (1). Spikelets ascending (2), or pectinate (14); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (15), or pedicelled (1). Pedicels linear (1/1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.5-4.677-9 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (15), or evident (1); pilose (6/6). GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (4), or reaching apex of florets (8), or exceeding apex of florets (4); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (2), or gaping (14). Lower glume lanceolate; 0.33-0.6641-1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (15), or distinct (1). Lower glume surface smooth (15), or asperulous (1); glabrous (15), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex entire (14), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (12), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (11), or mucronate (5), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate; 0.66-1.091-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (14), or ciliate (3). Upper glume surface smooth (15), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (12), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1), or villous (1), or woolly (1); with simple hairs (4/5), or tubercle-based hairs (1/5). Upper glume apex entire (13), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (12), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (10), or mucronate (4), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3). FLORETS Fertile lemma oblong (15), or ovate (1); coriaceous; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (14), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (1). Lemma lateral veins excurrent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (6), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (11), or pilose (2), or woolly (1). Lemma margins eciliate (13), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex entire (1), or dentate (1), or lobed (14); 2 -fid (1/15), or 3 -fid (14/15); incised 0.3 of lemma length; muticous (1), or mucronate (1), or awned (14); 1 -awned (3/14), or 3 -awned (11/14). Principal lemma awn apical (12/15), or from a sinus (3/15). Lateral lemma awns longer than principal (1/11), or subequal to principal (7/11), or shorter than principal (3/11). Palea 2 -veined. Palea keels eciliate (15), or ciliolate (1). Palea surface glabrous (14), or pubescent (2). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (13), or with excurrent keel veins (1), or awned (2). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (12), or 2 in number (8); barren; separate (11), or in a clump (5); rudimentary (5), or oblong (1), or cuneate (10). Apical sterile lemmas awned. FLOWER Anthers 3 (2/2). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (2/12), or oblong (1/12), or obovoid (9/12); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 0.66-0.7367-0.9 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION North America, or South America (3).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Maine
  • Michigan
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Arkansas
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • South Carolina
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • China China North-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Northern America Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Masachusettes

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.