Chionachne R.Br.
  • J.J.Bennett, Pl. Jav. Rar.: 15 (1838) 


Notes: Distribution: Hainan to Trop. Asia, N. Australia

General Description

HABIT Annual (6), or perennial (3). Rhizomes absent (8), or elongated (1). Culms erect (6), or decumbent (3); reed-like (1/5), or robust (4/5); 20-120.2-300 cm long; with prop roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (2/3). Culm-internodes terete (1/3), or channelled (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/4), or sparse (1/4), or ample (3/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (5), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (8), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades linear (8), or lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); firm (8), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (4/4). INFLORESCENCE Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Synflorescence simple (5), or compound (4); paniculate (3/3). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary (7), or axillary (2); subtended by a spatheole; exserted (2), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (6), or enclosed (1). Spatheole linear (2/7), or lanceolate (5/7); herbaceous (3/5), or scarious (2/5). Peduncle widened at apex (3/3). Racemes single; unilateral (2/2); bearing few fertile spikelets (8), or many spikelets (1); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (3/7), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (4/7), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (2/7), or 4-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/7). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; flattened (1/7), or subterete (6/7). Rhachis internodes linear (7), or columnar (1), or oblong (1); bearing a sterile companion laterally. Rhachis internode tip transverse (7/7); cupuliform (5), or crateriform (4). Sexes mixed (1), or segregated (8); on bisexual branches (8/8); with male above (8/8). Spikelets embracing internode; solitary (1), or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0 in the cluster (2), or 1 in the cluster. Male spikelets sessile and pedicelled; 1 in a cluster (2), or 2 in a cluster (8), or 3 in a cluster (2). Pedicels free (1), or fused to internode (8); filiform (1/1). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (1), or represented by barren pedicels (2), or rudimentary (6), or well-developed (3); deciduous with the fertile (2/2). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (7); dorsally compressed; 4-8.728-18 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (8), or square (1); base truncate; simple (1), or with central peg (8); attached transversely. GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (3), or ovate (2); chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (3), or indurate (5); without keels (5), or 2-keeled (4); wingless (2), or winged on keel (4), or winged on margins (3). Lower glume surface smooth (6), or asperulous (3); not waisted (7), or transversely waisted (2). Lower glume apex entire (8), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (3/8), or obtuse (5/8), or acute (1/8). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (6), or orbicular (1); membranous (1), or chartaceous (1), or herbaceous (2), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (3); without keels (3/3); 3-4 -veined (1/4), or 5 -veined (2/4), or 6-7 -veined (1/4), or 9-14 -veined (1/4), or 15 -veined (2/4), or 16-17 -veined (1/4). Upper glume apex acute (3/7), or acuminate (1/7), or cuspidate (3/7). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (2), or ovate (6); hyaline (7), or membranous (2); 3 -veined (5/5), or 4-5 -veined (1/5); acute (2/3), or cuspidate (1/3). Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma lanceolate (6), or oblong (3), or ovate (3); hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (2/5), or 3 -veined (3/5). Lemma apex truncate (1/6), or acute (5/6). Palea 1 length of lemma; hyaline; 0 -veined (1/1); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (5). Palea apex dentate (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules absent (3/3). Anthers 3 (4/4). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (5/5); oblong (1/1); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (5/5). MALE Male spikelets resembling female (2), or distinct from female (7); lanceolate (5/7), or elliptic (1/7), or oblong (1/7), or ovate (1/7), or obovate (1/7). Male spikelet glumes 2. DISTRIBUTION Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia, or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China Hainan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • Western Australia
Introduced into
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.