Arundinaria Michx.
  • Fl. Bor.-Amer. 1: 73 (1803) 


Notes: Distribution: C. & E. U.S.A.

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (2), or short (6), or elongated (21); leptomorph (21/27), or pachymorph (6/27). Culms erect (17/19), or arching (1/19), or scandent (2/19); 20-244.2-800 cm long; woody; without nodal roots (1/2), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/2). Culm-internodes similar in length (2/2); terete (27), or semiterete (1), or channelled (1). Culm-nodes swollen (3/3); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (3), or sparse (3), or suffrutescent (3), or dendroid (23). Branch complement one (2/19), or two (4/19), or three (11/19), or several (8/19), or many (2/19); solitary (1/7), or in a horizontal line (1/7), or in a clump (5/7); at the node (28), or subtended by a bare patch above the node (1); with subequal branches (6/7), or 1 branch dominant (1/7); as thick as stem (2/14), or thinner than stem (12/14). Culm-sheaths persistent (6/12), or tardily deciduous (1/12), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/12), or deciduous (5/12); without auricles (18/18). Culm-sheath blade linear (5/15), or lanceolate (9/15), or narrowly ovate (1/15), or triangular (2/15); narrower than sheath (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (26), or erect (1), or falcate (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (24), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (3), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (27). Leaf-blades persistent (14), or deciduous at the ligule (15); linear (4), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); herbaceous (24), or chartaceous (2), or coriaceous (3); stiff (1), or firm (28). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (16), or with obscure cross veins (3), or with distinct cross veins (11). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/3), or cartilaginous (2/3). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence simple (22/23), or compound (1/23); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (8/23), or composed of racemes (4/23), or comprising only a few spikelets (11/23); terminal (22/23), or terminal and axillary (1/23); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (20/23), or a spatheole (3/23); exserted (21/23), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2/23). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Panicle open (8/8). Racemes single (4/4); bearing few fertile spikelets (4/4); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3/3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 5-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Spikelets solitary (23/23). Fertile spikelets pedicelled (23/23). Pedicels filiform (1/1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1-6-15 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (1/23), or with diminished florets at the apex (23/23). Spikelets linear (13/23), or lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (1/23), or oblong (6/23); laterally compressed (23/23); 5-36.2-110 mm long; breaking up at maturity (23/23); disarticulating below each fertile floret (23/23). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (22/23), or elongated between glumes (1/23), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (1/23); glabrous (9/22), or sparsely hairy (1/22), or pubescent (11/22), or pilose (2/22). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (5/23), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (1/23), or two (20/23), or several (1/23); persistent (21/23), or deciduous (2/23); shorter than spikelet (23/23). Lower glume linear (1/21), or lanceolate (11/21), or oblong (1/21), or ovate (8/21); 0.3-0.5-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous (20/20); without keels (17/18), or 1-keeled (1/18); 0 -veined (1/11), or 1 -veined (2/11), or 3 -veined (1/11), or 5 -veined (4/11), or 6 -veined (1/11), or 7 -veined (4/11). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3/21), or distinct (18/21). Lower glume surface glabrous (20/21), or pilose (1/21). Lower glume apex acute (13/19), or acuminate (4/19), or attenuate (2/19); muticous (19/21), or mucronate (1/21), or awned (1/21). Upper glume lanceolate (7/23), or elliptic (4/23), or oblong (1/23), or ovate (12/23); 0.2-0.3825-0.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (23/23); without keels (19/20), or 1-keeled (1/20); 3 -veined (2/14), or 4 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (4/14), or 6 -veined (1/14), or 7 -veined (9/14), or 8-9 -veined (1/14), or 11 -veined (1/14). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (2/2). Upper glume surface glabrous (22/23), or pilose (1/23). Upper glume apex acute (13/22), or acuminate (6/22), or attenuate (2/22), or setaceously attenuate (1/22); muticous (21/23), or mucronate (1/23), or awned (1/23); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (3/23), or elliptic (3/23), or ovate (17/23); chartaceous (23/23); without keel (21/22), or keeled (1/22); 5-9-15 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (22/23), or scabrous (2/23); glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (3/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Lemma margins eciliate (20/23), or ciliolate (2/23), or ciliate (1/23). Lemma apex obtuse (1/23), or acute (4/23), or acuminate (12/23), or attenuate (2/23), or setaceously attenuate (3/23), or apiculate (1/23); muticous (19/23), or mucronate (3/23), or awned (3/23); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (2/9), or 7 -veined (2/9), or 8 -veined (3/9), or 9 -veined (2/9), or 10-14 -veined (1/9). Palea keels separated (21/23), or contiguous above a sulcus (2/23); wingless (20/23), or winged (3/23); smooth (21/23), or scabrous (2/23); eciliate (14/23), or ciliolate (4/23), or ciliate (5/23). Palea surface glabrous (19/23), or puberulous (2/23), or pubescent (1/23), or pilose (1/23). Palea apex dentate (2/2); muticous (20/23), or with excurrent keel veins (3/23). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (23/23). FLOWER Lodicules 3 (23/23); glabrous (9/23), or ciliate (15/23). Anthers 3 (23/23). Stigmas 2 (5/21), or 3 (16/21). Ovary glabrous (2/2). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (23/23); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (3/5), or oblong (1/5); apex unappendaged (21/22), or rostrate (1/22). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (2/2); 1 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (9), or Australasia (3), or North America (2).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Northern America North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Kansas
  • Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Indiana
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • West Virginia
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
TreeBASE
http://treebase.org/treebase-web/home.html
  • C All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.