HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (4), or short (8), or elongated (2). Culms erect (10), or geniculately ascending (7), or decumbent (2); robust (10/13), or of moderate stature (4/13); 50-283.4-500 cm long; without nodal roots (2/3), or with prop roots (3/3). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (13), or erect (1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (11), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades linear (11), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (13), or coriaceous (1). INFLORESCENCE Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary. Racemes single (5), or paired (4), or digitate (12); erect (7), or ascending (3), or spreading (1), or drooping (3); unilateral; bearing 4-12 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing abaxial. Rhachis internodes oblong; adherent to upper glume of sessile spikelet. Rhachis internode tip transverse; crateriform. Sexes segregated; on bisexual branches; with male above. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile (8), or sessile and pedicelled (8); 2 in a cluster. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong (1), or ovate (13); dorsally compressed; 3-6.016-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus base truncate; with central peg; attached transversely. GLUMES Glumes reaching apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; indurate; without keels. Lower glume apex acute (7/9), or acuminate (2/9). Upper glume ovate; cartilaginous; without keels. Upper glume apex acute (9/9). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel. Palea hyaline. FLOWER Anthers 3 (1/1). MALE Male spikelets distinct from female; lanceolate (2/2), or elliptic (2/2). Male spikelet glumes 2; muticous. DISTRIBUTION Africa (1), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (12), or South America (13).