Themeda Forssk.
  • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 178 (1775) 


General Description

HABIT Annual (3), or perennial (24). Rhizomes absent (26), or elongated (1). Culms erect (20/23), or geniculately ascending (7/23), or decumbent (1/23); robust (9/11), or slender (2/11); 15-152.2-600 cm long; firm (26), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (1/3), or with prop roots (2/3), or rooting from lower nodes (1/3). Culm-internodes terete (2/3), or elliptical in section (1/3). Lateral branches lacking (1/5), or ample (4/5). Ligule an eciliate membrane (9), or a ciliolate membrane (17), or absent (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (26), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (2), or firm (23), or flaccid (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (2/5), or widened (3/5). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence simple (1), or compound (26); scanty (4/26), or linear (3/26), or paniculate (10/26), or fasciculate (9/26). Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (1), or terminal and axillary (26); not deciduous as a whole (25), or deciduous as a whole (2); subtended by a spatheole; exserted (3), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2), or enclosed (23). Spatheole linear (6), or lanceolate (24), or ovate (1); scarious (25/25). Racemes single; oblong (8), or ovate (1), or cuneate (18); bearing a triad of spikelets (2), or few fertile spikelets (25); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (14), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (17), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (3), or 4 fertile spikelets on each (2). Rhachis tough (2), or fragile at the nodes (25). Rhachis internodes indefinite (21), or linear (6). Spikelets in pairs (17), or in threes (16). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (26), or 2-3 in the cluster (1). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (18), or 2 in the cluster (16). Pedicels linear (1), or oblong (26); tip oblique (11/11). STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets represented by a single scale (1), or well-developed (26); forming an involucre about the fertile; persistent (25), or deciduous with the fertile (2). Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; deciduous with the fertile (3), or separately deciduous (24). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (1), or oblong (4), or linear (22). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (3); subterete (22), or dorsally compressed (5); 2.5-7.134-17 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (1), or square (1), or oblong (10), or cuneate (9), or linear (6); pubescent (4/24), or pilose (3/24), or bearded (17/24); base obtuse (9/26), or acute (5/26), or pungent (12/26); attached obliquely. GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (24), or ovate (1); chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or coriaceous (25); without keels; 1 -veined (1/12), or 5 -veined (2/12), or 6 -veined (1/12), or 7 -veined (4/12), or 8 -veined (3/12), or 9 -veined (5/12), or 10 -veined (1/12), or 11 -veined (4/12). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct (26). Lower glume surface convex (21), or flat (3), or concave (1), or with a longitudinal median groove (2); smooth (23), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2); glabrous (9), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (10), or pilose (2), or hirsute (2), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Lower glume apex truncate (6/18), or obtuse (10/18), or acute (2/18). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (25); chartaceous (2/16), or cartilaginous (1/16), or coriaceous (13/16); with undifferentiated margins (26), or membranous margins (1); 2-keeled (1/1); 3 -veined (14/14), or 4-5 -veined (1/14). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (25), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface glabrous (24), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1), or villous (1). Upper glume apex truncate (4/5), or acute (1/5). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or lanceolate (12), or elliptic (1), or oblong (11), or ovate (2); hyaline; 0 -veined (3/6), or 1 -veined (2/6), or 3-5 -veined (1/6); acute (1/1). Fertile florets bisexual (25), or female (2). Fertile lemma linear (21), or lanceolate (5), or oblong (1); hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute (3/3); muticous (4), or awned (25); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn straight (2/25), or geniculate (23/25), or bigeniculate (1/25). Column of lemma awn glabrous (2/23), or hispidulous (11/23), or puberulous (6/23), or pubescent (1/23), or hirtellous (2/23), or hirsute (1/23). Palea present (1), or absent or minute (26); hyaline (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 1 (1/2), or 2 (1/2). Anthers 3 (8/8). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1). DISTRIBUTION Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (22), or Australasia (5), or Pacific (6), or North America (1), or South America (2).

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.