Sorghum Moench
  • Methodus: 207 (1794) 


Notes: , nom. cons.

General Description

HABIT Annual (20), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (25), or short (3), or elongated (4). Culms erect (20/20), or geniculately ascending (4/20), or decumbent (1/20); robust (5/5), or of moderate stature (1/5); 25-180.2-600 cm long; firm (30), or wiry (1); without nodal roots (14/15), or with prop roots (11/15). Culm-nodes constricted (3/3), or flush with internodes (2/3). Lateral branches lacking (6/8), or sparse (6/8). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (30), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (16), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); stiff (1), or firm (30). Leaf-blade midrib widened (1/1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; terminal, or terminal and axillary (1). Panicle open (28), or contracted (4). Primary panicle branches not whorled (19), or whorled at lower nodes (2), or whorled at most nodes (10); without sterile bristles (30), or sterile at lowest node (1). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (7), or few fertile spikelets (20), or many spikelets (7); 1-4-21 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis evident (28), or obsolete (6); tough (6), or fragile at the nodes (26). Rhachis internodes filiform (14/28), or linear (15/28). Rhachis internode tip transverse (19/28), or oblique (9/28); cupuliform (14/14). Spikelets appressed (5/5); in pairs (28), or in threes (7). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster (26), or 2 in the cluster (8). Pedicels filiform (30), or linear (1). STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets absent, or well-developed (2). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels (1), or well-developed (30); persistent (5/30), or separately deciduous (26/30). Companion sterile spikelet callus indistinct (29/30), or square (1/30). Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (29/30), or mucronate (2/30), or awned (2/30). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (15), or oblong (6), or ovate (5), or orbicular (1), or obovate (5), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 3-8.161-20 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (29); deciduous with accessory branch structures (29/29). Spikelet callus brief (19), or square (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (8), or linear (2); glabrous (1/18), or pubescent (5/18), or pilose (7/18), or bearded (6/18); base truncate (1), or obtuse (21), or pungent (10); attached obliquely (2/2). GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas, or gaping (1). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (4), or oblong (1), or ovate (25); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (23), or 2-keeled (8); wingless (29), or winged on keel (2); 5-9-20 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins without ribs (30), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (30), or flat (1); smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (13), or pilose (12), or villous (5), or hispid (1). Lower glume apex entire (22), or dentate (10); 2 -fid (4/10), or 3 -fid (6/10); emarginate (1/20), or truncate (1/20), or obtuse (3/20), or acute (14/20), or rostrate (3/20); muticous (30), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or ovate (28); chartaceous (3), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (27); without keels (29), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (30), or winged on margins (1); 5 -veined (8/20), or 6 -veined (7/20), or 7 -veined (19/20), or 8-9 -veined (3/20), or 10-11 -veined (1/20). Upper glume lateral veins without cross-veins (1/4), or with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (29), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (20), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (14), or pilose (9), or villous (2); with simple hairs (21/22), or tubercle-based hairs (2/22). Upper glume apex entire (30), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); truncate (1/11), or obtuse (3/11), or acute (6/11), or acuminate (2/11), or setaceously attenuate (2/11); muticous, or mucronate (1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (17), or elliptic (13), or oblong (1); hyaline; 2 -veined (30/30), or 3-5 -veined (1/30); acute (19/19). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (19), or ovate (8), or obovate (1); dorsally compressed (2/2); hyaline; 1 -veined (30), or 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (2). Lemma surface glabrous (30), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate (13), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (15). Lemma apex entire (3), or dentate (21), or lobed (10); 2 -fid; incised 0.2-0.2817-0.33 of lemma length; muticous (7), or awned (30); 1 -awned (30/30). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (30/30); geniculate (30/30). Column of lemma awn glabrous (17/30), or pubescent (11/30), or ciliate (3/30). Palea present (4), or absent or minute (27); hyaline (1/4), or membranous (3/4); 0 -veined (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (29/29); fleshy (19/19); glabrous (7/29), or ciliate (26/29). Anthers 3 (26/26). Stigmas 2 (19/19). Ovary glabrous (6/8), or pubescent on apex (2/8). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (25/25); ellipsoid (7/17), or oblong (4/17), or ovoid (1/17), or obovoid (12/17); isodiametric (1/7), or dorsally compressed (5/7), or flattened (1/7); apex umbonate (1/1). Embryo 0.5-0.55-0.6 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/3). DISTRIBUTION Europe (3), or Africa (8), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (14), or Australasia (23), or Pacific (6), or North America (5), or South America (6).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Western Asia East Aegean Is.
  • Sinai
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Bangladesh
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Australasia Australia Queensland
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Southern America Central America Honduras
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Djibouti
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Asia-Temperate Russian Far East Amur
  • Khabarovsk
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Asia-Tropical Papuasia Solomon Is.
  • Australasia New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Central European Russia
  • Krym
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Hungary
  • Switzerland
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Marshall Is.
  • Wake I.
  • South-Central Pacific Easter Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Pitcairn Is.
  • Society Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Niue
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Southern America Caribbean Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.