Secale L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 84 (1753) 


General Description

HABIT Annual (4), or perennial (4). Culms erect (5/5), or geniculately ascending (3/5), or decumbent (1/5); 15-65.62-150 cm long. Leaf-sheath auricles falcate. Ligule an eciliate membrane. INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single; erect (1), or ascending (7); bilateral. Rhachis tough (2), or fragile at the nodes (7). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (2), or contiguous (6). Rhachis internodes oblong; falling with spikelet above (7/7). Spikelets ascending (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (2), or with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (2), or oblong (1), or cuneate (6); laterally compressed; 8-13.56-18 mm long; persistent on plant (1), or falling entire (6), or breaking up at maturity (2); deciduous with accessory branch structures (6/6); disarticulating below each fertile floret (2/2). GLUMES Glumes shorter than spikelet (7), or reaching apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma (7), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1). Lower glume subulate (1), or linear (4), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (1); 1 length of upper glume; membranous (7), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled (7/7); 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface glabrous (5), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (1). Lower glume apex acuminate (7/7); muticous (1/7), or mucronate (2/7), or awned (5/7). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (4), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (1); 0.6-0.8714-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (7), or coriaceous (1); 1-keeled (7/7); 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (4), or ciliate (4). Upper glume surface glabrous (6), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex acuminate (7/7); muticous (1/7), or mucronate (1/7), or awned (6/7); 1 -awned (6/6). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (2), or elliptic (6); coriaceous; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (1), or pectinately ciliate (7). Lemma surface smooth (7), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (6), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Palea 0.6-0.9125-1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (5), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1); eciliate (5), or ciliolate (3). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (1), or distinct from fertile (7); 1 in number (7/7); barren (7/7); linear (1/1). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (6/7), or awned (1/7). FLOWER Lodicules 2; ciliate. Anthers 3. Ovary with a fleshy appendage below style insertion; pubescent on apex. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (1/2), or obovoid (1/2). Embryo 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear; 1 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (1), or North America (2), or South America (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Northern Africa Libya
  • Morocco
  • Europe Eastern Europe Krym
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Hungary
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Greenland
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan

Synonyms

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.