Saccharum L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753) 


General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (25), or short (7), or elongated (4). Culms erect (34/35), or geniculately ascending (1/35), or rambling (1/35); robust (25/25); 0-221.6-1000 cm long; firm (34), or woody (2). Culm-internodes terete (2/2). Culm-nodes flush with internodes (1/2), or swollen (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (4/4). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (35), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (14), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (35), or with a false petiole (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (33), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (35), or coriaceous (1); stiff (5), or firm (31). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/10), or widened (5/10). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (35), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (33/34), or contracted (1/34). Primary panicle branches not whorled (32), or whorled at lower nodes (1), or whorled at most nodes (3). Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets (3), or many spikelets (33); 2 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 4-6 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 7-8 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 9 fertile spikelets on each (1/4), or 10-17 fertile spikelets on each (2/4), or 18-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/4). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (1), or subterete (35). Rhachis internodes filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1). Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (3), or sessile and pedicelled (34); 1 in the cluster (3), or 2 in the cluster (34); subequal (33/33), or the upper smaller (1/33). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (3/3); 0 in the cluster (1/3), or 1 in the cluster (3/3). Pedicels filiform (15), or linear (20), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/1). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (33), or rudimentary (2), or well-developed (3). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (29), or elliptic (4), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); dorsally compressed; 2-5.043-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (34), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (35), or square (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3), or bearded (32); base truncate (35), or obtuse (1); inserted (1/1). GLUMES Glumes reaching apex of florets (6/11), or exceeding apex of florets (5/11); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (7), or ovate (1); membranous (12), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (8); without keels (4), or 2-keeled (32); 1 -veined (2/19), or 2 -veined (7/19), or 3 -veined (5/19), or 4 -veined (6/19), or 5 -veined (7/19), or 6 -veined (1/19), or 7 -veined (2/19), or 9-11 -veined (1/19). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or obscure (1), or distinct (35); without ribs (35), or ribbed (1). Lower glume surface convex (8), or flat (28); smooth (33), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); glabrous (18), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (4), or pilose (11), or hirsute (4), or villous (6). Lower glume apex entire (34), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (4/32), or truncate (3/32), or obtuse (4/32), or acute (9/32), or acuminate (16/32). Upper glume lanceolate (33), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2); membranous (13), or chartaceous (10), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (9); without keels (20), or 1-keeled (16); 1 -veined (14/28), or 2 -veined (2/28), or 3 -veined (11/28), or 5 -veined (2/28), or 7 -veined (3/28). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (35), or ciliate (2). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (23/24), or ribbed (1/24). Upper glume surface smooth (34), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (29), or pubescent (1), or pilose (9), or hirsute (3), or villous (2). Upper glume apex truncate (2/35), or obtuse (1/35), or acute (29/35), or acuminate (2/35), or setaceously attenuate (1/35), or caudate (1/35); muticous (34), or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (1), or without significant palea (35). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (2), or lanceolate (27), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline (35), or membranous (1); 0 -veined (9/18), or 1 -veined (4/18), or 2 -veined (3/18), or 3 -veined (5/18); truncate (1/34), or obtuse (2/34), or acute (31/34); muticous (35), or mucronate (2). Fertile lemma linear (18/35), or lanceolate (15/35), or elliptic (1/35), or oblong (6/35), or ovate (1/35); hyaline (35/35); 0 -veined (5/18), or 1 -veined (6/18), or 3 -veined (7/18). Lemma surface glabrous (34/35), or pubescent (1/35). Lemma margins eciliate (25/35), or ciliolate (6/35), or ciliate (5/35). Lemma apex entire (24/35), or dentate (6/35), or lobed (6/35); 2 -fid (11/11); incised 0.2-0.3517-0.5 of lemma length; acute (6/6); muticous (10/35), or mucronate (1/35), or awned (27/35); 1 -awned (25/25). Principal lemma awn apical (17/28), or from a sinus (11/28); straight (17/28), or curved (4/28), or flexuous (3/28), or geniculate (6/28). Palea present (16), or absent or minute (20); 0.15-0.875-3 length of lemma; hyaline (8/16), or membranous (8/16). Palea keels eciliate (15/16), or ciliolate (1/16). Palea surface glabrous (14/16), or pilose (2/16). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (26/26); glabrous (12/26), or ciliate (14/26). Anthers 2 (2/33), or 3 (31/33). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (2/2); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.15 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (21), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (4), or North America (8), or South America (6).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • West Tropical Africa Burkina
  • Ghana
  • Nigeria
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Korea
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Western Asia East Aegean Is.
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Sinai
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Europe Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Southeast
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Indiana
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • West Virginia
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
Introduced into
  • Africa South Tropical Africa Angola
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Aldabra
  • Comoros
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Asia-Tropical Papuasia Solomon Is.
  • Australasia New Zealand New Zealand North
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Kansas
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Michigan
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Utah
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • Marshall Is.
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Easter Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Pitcairn Is.
  • Society Is.
  • Tubuai Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Gilbert Is.
  • New Caledonia
  • Niue
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
  • Southern America Caribbean Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.