Phyllostachys Siebold & Zucc.
  • Abh. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. 3: 745 (1843) 


Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Himalaya to C. & S. China, Hainan, Taiwan

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes elongated; leptomorph. Culms erect; 100-767.2-3500 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1), or abbreviated and closely packed at the base (1/1); semiterete. Culm-nodes swollen (8/9), or flanged (1/9); without obvious supra-nodal ridge (2/11), or with distinct supra-nodal ridge (9/11). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement two (33/34), or three (1/34); in a horizontal line (1/1); with 1 branch dominant (31/31); thinner than stem (1/1). Culm-sheaths deciduous (13/13); without auricles (31/46), or auriculate (19/46). Culm-sheath blade linear (31/47), or lanceolate (7/47), or triangular (21/47). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (38), or erect (1), or falcate (18). Ligule an eciliate membrane (11), or a ciliolate membrane (40), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (1), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (50). Leaf-blades linear (4), or lanceolate (49), or oblong (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (42), or with distinct cross veins (9). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (18/18); fasciculate (16/18), or clustered at the nodes (2/18); with spathaceous subtending bracts (18/18); without axillary buds at base of spikelet (15/15); leafless between branches (1/1). Fertile spikelets sessile (18/18). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets (5/18), or 2 fertile florets (13/18), or 3 fertile florets (10/18), or 4 fertile florets (8/18), or 5 fertile florets (3/18), or 6 fertile florets (1/18); without rhachilla extension (2/18), or with a barren rhachilla extension (14/18), or with diminished florets at the apex (2/18). Spikelets lanceolate (18/18); laterally compressed (18/18); 8-22.55-36 mm long; breaking up at maturity (18/18); disarticulating below each fertile floret (18/18). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (16/17), or sparsely hairy (1/17), or pubescent (2/17). GLUMES Glumes both absent or obscure (1/18), or one the lower absent or obscure (12/18), or two (8/18); persistent (18/18); shorter than spikelet (18/18). Lower glume lanceolate (5/5); membranous (1/1); 1-keeled (1/1); 1-3 -veined (1/1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1/8), or distinct (8/8). Lower glume apex acuminate (1/1). Upper glume linear (1/18), or lanceolate (5/18), or oblong (12/18); 0.6-0.65-0.7 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (1/18), or chartaceous (17/18); without keels (8/15), or 1-keeled (6/15), or 2-keeled (1/15); 5-6 -veined (1/2), or 7 -veined (2/2), or 8-9 -veined (1/2). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (15/18), or ciliolate (3/18). Upper glume surface glabrous (15/18), or puberulous (3/18). Upper glume apex acute (16/18), or acuminate (1/18), or setaceously attenuate (1/18). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren (1/1); with palea (1/1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (5/18), or elliptic (6/18), or ovate (7/18); chartaceous (18/18); without keel (15/16), or keeled (1/16); 7-8 -veined (1/7), or 9 -veined (3/7), or 10 -veined (2/7), or 11 -veined (4/7), or 12-13 -veined (2/7), or 15-17 -veined (1/7). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (11/18), or puberulous (1/18), or pubescent (4/18), or pilose (1/18), or hispidulous (1/18). Lemma margins eciliate (17/18), or ciliate (1/18). Lemma apex acute (3/18), or acuminate (14/18), or setaceously attenuate (1/18); muticous (15/18), or awned (3/18); 1 -awned (3/3). Palea 0.5-0.9438-1 length of lemma; chartaceous (18/18); 6 -veined (1/2), or 12 -veined (1/2). Palea keels separated (17/18), or approximate (1/18); eciliate (14/18), or ciliolate (3/18), or ciliate (1/18). Palea surface glabrous (13/18), or puberulous (1/18), or pubescent (3/18), or pilose (1/18). Palea apex dentate (4/4); muticous (16/18), or with excurrent keel veins (2/18). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (1/2), or distinct from fertile (1/2); rudimentary (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 3 (18/18); glabrous (11/18), or ciliate (7/18); obtuse (1/2), or acute (1/2). Anthers 3 (18/18). Stigmas 2 (1/17), or 3 (16/17). Ovary unappendaged (12/18), or umbonate (6/18); glabrous (1/1). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). DISTRIBUTION Africa (1), or Temperate Asia, or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (3), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Vietnam
Introduced into
  • Africa West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Western Indian Ocean Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus Transcaucasus
  • China Tibet
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Western Asia Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Laos
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Philippines
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • New Zealand Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • Europe Middle Europe Austria
  • Northern Europe Great Britain
  • Southeastern Europe Turkey-in-Europe
  • Southwestern Europe Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Masachusettes
  • New Jersey
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Oregon
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Cuba
  • Puerto Rico
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.