Phalaris L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 54 (1753) 


Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Temp. & Subtrop. to Trop. Mts.

General Description

HABIT Annual (11), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (13), or short (2), or elongated (2). Culms erect (6/6), or geniculately ascending (4/6); 10-88.52-200 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (16), or flaccid (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (16), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1); exserted (16), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (1), or spiciform (16), or capitate (2). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (16), or deciduous spikelet clusters (2). Spikelets appressed (2/3), or ascending (1/3); solitary (16), or subtended by an involucre (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (10), or pedicelled (8); 1 in the cluster (2/2), or 2 in the cluster (1/2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (2/2); 5 in the cluster (1/2), or 6 in the cluster (2/2). Involucre composed of imperfect spikelets (2/2). Pedicels linear (1/1); tip cupuliform (1/1). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (15), or well-developed (2); deciduous with the fertile (2/2). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (1), or ovate (2), or obovate (14); laterally compressed; 2.9-6.046-10 mm long; falling entire (2), or breaking up at maturity (16); deciduous with accessory branch structures (2/2); disarticulating below each fertile floret (16/16). GLUMES Glumes persistent (16/16); exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (5), or winged on keel (14); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4-5 -veined (6/16). Lower glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Lower glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (15), or ovate (1); 1.2-1.52-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; wingless (4), or winged on keel (15); 3 -veined (16/16), or 4-5 -veined (6/16). Upper glume surface smooth (11), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (3). Upper glume apex truncate (4), or obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (4), or setaceously attenuate (1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren (14/14); without significant palea (14/14). Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (3/13), or linear (7/13), or lanceolate (1/13), or ovate (2/13); 0.1-0.3895-0.75 length of fertile lemma; membranous (2/4), or fleshy (2/4); acute (3/3). Fertile lemma elliptic (15), or ovate (2); laterally compressed (15/16), or subterete (1/16); cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (15). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (15), or acuminate (1). Palea cartilaginous (16), or coriaceous (1); 2 -veined; without keels. Palea surface glabrous (3), or pubescent (14). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (10/10); membranous (10/10). Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous (15/15). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). Hilum linear (15/15). DISTRIBUTION Europe (8), or Africa (10), or Temperate Asia (8), or Tropical Asia (6), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (4), or North America (9), or South America (11), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Western Sahara
  • West Tropical Africa Mauritania
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Rwanda
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Vietnam
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Northeast Tropical Africa Djibouti
  • South Tropical Africa Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • Western Indian Ocean Mauritius
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Tristan da Cunha
  • Asia-Temperate Eastern Asia Nansei-shoto
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Jawa
  • Philippines
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Idaho
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Marianas
  • Southwestern Pacific New Caledonia
  • Southern America Caribbean Bermuda
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • Honduras
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Chile North

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.