Paspalum L.
  • Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 855 (1759) 


Notes: Distribution: Africa, Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to Pacific, America

General Description

HABIT Annual (44), or perennial (281). Rhizomes absent (245), or short (51), or elongated (31). Stolons absent (308), or present (19). Culms erect (125/209), or geniculately ascending (63/209), or decumbent (53/209), or prostrate (6/209), or rambling (5/209), or leaning (2/209); robust (20/49), or slender (29/49); 2-72.51-400 cm long; spongy (5), or firm (313), or wiry (6), or woody (1); without nodal roots (9/41), or with prop roots (1/41), or rooting from lower nodes (40/41). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/1); terete (5/26), or semiterete (1/26), or elliptical in section (22/26). Culm-nodes constricted (6/8), or swollen (2/8). Lateral branches lacking (98/145), or sparse (32/145), or ample (29/145), or fastigiate (1/145). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (315), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (10). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (319), or erect (6). Ligule an eciliate membrane (301), or a ciliolate membrane (9), or a ciliate membrane (4), or a fringe of hairs (12). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (319), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (4), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades aciculate (2), or filiform (19), or linear (256), or lanceolate (78), or elliptic (3); herbaceous (323), or coriaceous (2); stiff (22), or firm (296), or flaccid (7). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/12), or evident (1/12), or conspicuous (10/12). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). Leaf-blade apex muticous (322), or pungent (4). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal (306), or terminal and axillary (22); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (323), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted (319), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (8), or enclosed (1). Peduncle tipped by a glumaceous appendage (4/4). Racemes single (59), or paired (91), or digitate (46), or borne along a central axis (204); appressed (4), or erect (7), or ascending (308), or spreading (12), or drooping (11), or deflexed (2); linear, or lanceolate (1); unilateral (324/324); bearing 20 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (294/296), or flattened (3/296), or winged (1/296); tip without extension (295/296), or with blunt extension (1/296), or subulate (1/296), or filiform (1/296). Rhachis persistent (288/296), or deciduous from axis (8/296); wingless (190), or narrowly winged (92), or broadly winged (43); membranous (14/43), or herbaceous (16/43), or foliaceous (13/43); not appreciably folded (121/135), or folded longitudinally to embrace spikelets (14/135); flattened (34/215), or angular (175/215), or semiterete (6/215); terminating in a spikelet (297), or sterile spikelet (3), or barren extension (26); extension flattened (19/20), or subulate (2/20). Spikelet packing adaxial (1/135), or abaxial (133/135), or alternately adaxial and abaxial (1/135); crowded (35), or contiguous (278), or lax (11), or distant (2); 1 -rowed (7/182), or 2 -rowed (115/182), or 3 -rowed (23/182), or 4 -rowed (74/182), or 5 -rowed (1/182), or 6 -rowed (2/182), or 7-10 -rowed (1/182). Raceme-bases brief (321), or linear (4). Spikelets appressed (3/4), or pectinate (1/4); solitary (137), or in pairs (195). Fertile spikelets sessile (37), or sessile and pedicelled (14), or pedicelled (274); 1 in the cluster (1/8), or 2 in the cluster (8/8); subequal (1/2), or the lower smaller (2/2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (1/1); 0-1 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels free (286/288), or fused to internode (1/288), or fused to each other (1/288); oblong (100/104), or clavate (1/104), or reduced to a stump (3/104); tip discoid (8/9), or cupuliform (1/9). STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets absent (324), or rudimentary (1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (324/324); 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (24), or elliptic (176), or oblong (43), or ovate (64), or orbicular (29), or obovate (92), or oblanceolate (1), or rhomboid (6); of unremarkable solid shape (323), or hemispherical (2); dorsally compressed; symmetrical (54), or gibbous (1), or turgidly plano-convex (9), or plano-convex (256), or concavo-convex (5); 0.6-2.656-8 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (323), or with accessory branch structures (2). Spikelet callus glabrous (1/2), or pilose (1/2). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (323), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). GLUMES Glumes both absent or obscure (11), or one the lower absent or obscure (288), or one to two the lower present in some spikelets (16), or two (24); shorter than spikelet (42/315), or reaching apex of florets (275/315), or exceeding apex of florets (3/315); thinner than fertile lemma (314/315), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (1/315). Lower glume linear (1/34), or lanceolate (5/34), or oblong (1/34), or ovate (25/34), or orbicular (1/34), or oblate (5/34); 0-0.27-0.6 length of upper glume; hyaline (7/14), or membranous (7/14); without keels (3/3); 0-1 -veined (13/19), or 2-3 -veined (1/19). Lower glume lateral veins absent (18/37), or distinct (20/37). Lower glume surface glabrous (34/37), or pubescent (2/37), or pilose (1/37). Lower glume apex truncate (1/15), or obtuse (5/15), or acute (11/15), or acuminate (1/15). Upper glume lanceolate (8/315), or elliptic (174/315), or oblong (9/315), or ovate (89/315), or orbicular (16/315), or oblate (1/315), or obovate (24/315); without auricles (309/315), or auriculate at base (6/315); not gibbous (314/315), or gibbous (1/315); 1-1.216-1.6 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (11/314), or membranous (290/314), or chartaceous (10/314), or herbaceous (1/314), or cartilaginous (2/314), or coriaceous (1/314); with undifferentiated margins (313/315), or hyaline margins (1/315), or cartilaginous margins (1/315); without keels (312/313), or 1-keeled (1/313); wingless (308/315), or winged on margins (7/315); 0-4-9 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (302/304), or ciliate (1/304), or pubescent (2/304). Upper glume lateral veins with cross-veins (4/4). Upper glume surface smooth (294/315), or asperulous (2/315), or scabrous (4/315), or papillose (4/315), or tuberculate (1/315), or wrinkled (9/315), or rugose (1/315); glabrous (207/315), or puberulous (37/315), or pubescent (58/315), or pilose (22/315), or hirsute (3/315), or villous (9/315), or hispidulous (1/315), or setose (1/315); with simple hairs (112/131), or tubercle-based hairs (13/131), or capitate hairs (5/131), or clavate hairs (1/131); without hair tufts (309/315), or with basal tufts of hair (3/315), or with marginal tufts of hair (2/315), or with an apical beard (1/315). Upper glume apex entire (311/315), or erose (2/315), or with a unilateral tooth (2/315), or dentate (1/315); 1-2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (1/232), or truncate (1/232), or obtuse (108/232), or acute (119/232), or acuminate (3/232), or attenuate (1/232), or cuspidate (2/232), or caudate (1/232); muticous (310/315), or mucronate (3/315), or awned (3/315); 1 -awned (3/4), or 3 -awned (1/4). Upper glume awn terminal (4/5), or subapical (1/5). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (9/324), or barren (317/324); with palea (13/324), or without significant palea (313/324). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (5/324), or elliptic (237/324), or oblong (13/324), or ovate (39/324), or orbicular (14/324), or trullate (1/324), or obovate (21/324); 0.9-1.2-1.6 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (11/322), or membranous (294/322), or chartaceous (9/322), or cartilaginous (3/322), or coriaceous (6/322); 1 -veined (2/287), or 2 -veined (22/287), or 3 -veined (176/287), or 4 -veined (26/287), or 5 -veined (115/287), or 6 -veined (8/287), or 7 -veined (10/287); without ribs (321/322), or ribbed (1/322); without grooves (314/324), or sulcate (10/324), or with 2 longitudinal grooves (1/324), or readily splitting into two halves (1/324); truncate (1/231), or obtuse (111/231), or acute (114/231), or acuminate (4/231), or cuspidate (2/231); muticous (320/324), or mucronate (2/324), or awned (3/324). Palea of lower sterile floret hyaline (11/13), or becoming indurate on keels at maturity (1/13), or becoming indurate on flanks at maturity (1/13); wingless (12/13), or winged on keels (1/13). Fertile lemma lanceolate (7), or elliptic (207), or oblong (16), or ovate (61), or orbicular (25), or obovate (34); not gibbous (275), or gibbous (50); hemispherical (1/1); membranous (1), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (8), or coriaceous (17), or indurate (297); without keel (324), or keeled (1); 3 -veined (8/30), or 4 -veined (1/30), or 5 -veined (20/30), or 7 -veined (3/30). Lemma lateral veins obscure (5/7), or distinct (1/7), or prominent (1/7). Lemma surface smooth (188), or granulose (14), or scaberulous (4), or papillose (43), or tuberculate (2), or striate (72), or punctate (10); unwrinkled (324), or rugulose (1); glabrous (319), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1); without hair tufts (324), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins flat (2), or involute (322), or convolute (1); exposing palea (324), or covering most of palea (1); eciliate (318), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (2). Lemma apex obtuse (118/163), or acute (43/163), or acuminate (2/163), or apiculate (1/163), or rostrate (1/163); without ornament (311), or papillose (2), or scabrous (1), or pubescent (12); muticous (324), or mucronate (1). Palea embraced by lemma (323), or separating from lemma above (1), or gaping (1); not rolled (3), or involute (322); membranous (2), or chartaceous (2), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (17), or indurate (300); 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels smooth (324), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (324), or puberulous (1). Palea surface glabrous (323), or puberulous (2). FLOWER Lodicules absent (2/27), or 2 (25/27); membranous (1/4), or fleshy (3/4); truncate (4/5), or obtuse (1/5). Anthers 3 (206/206). Stigmas 2 (2/2). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (269/269); ellipsoid (20/42), or oblong (3/42), or ovoid (2/42), or orbicular (6/42), or obovoid (12/42); dorsally compressed (3/4), or flattened (1/4); plano-convex (7/7). Embryo 0.3-0.4267-0.7 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (9/24), or elliptic (12/24), or linear (4/24); 0.25-0.482-0.66 length of caryopsis. CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (322), or present (4); in lower sheaths (3/4), or underground (1/4). DISTRIBUTION Europe (4), or Africa (11), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (14), or Australasia (19), or Pacific (15), or North America (96), or South America (289), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cabinda
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Réunion
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Yemen
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Kazan-retto
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • South-Central Pacific Easter Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Nauru
  • New Caledonia
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Aruba
  • Bahamas
  • Bermuda
  • Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Southwest Caribbean
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Turks-Caicos Is.
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Central American Pacific Is.
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • St.Helena
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Somalia
  • Southern Africa Lesotho
  • Western Indian Ocean Aldabra
  • Chagos Archipelago
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Tristan da Cunha
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Middle Asia Tadzhikistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Western Asia Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Laccadive Is.
  • Maldives
  • Indo-China South China Sea
  • Malesia Christmas I.
  • Cocos (Keeling) Is.
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • Australasia Australia South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Krym
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Southwestern Europe Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Marshall Is.
  • Wake I.
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Pitcairn Is.
  • Society Is.
  • Tuamotu
  • Tubuai Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Niue
  • Santa Cruz Is.
  • Tokelau-Manihiki
  • Tuvalu
  • Vanuatu
  • Wallis-Futuna Is.

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ConsultaPublicaUC.do.
  • 2 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.