Parapholis C.E.Hubb.
  • Blumea, Suppl. 3: 14 (1946) 


Notes: Distribution: Macaronesia, Europe to C. Asia, N. Africa to Pakistan

General Description

HABIT Annual (5), or perennial (1). Culms erect (4), or geniculately ascending (4); slender (1/1); 2-18.91-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades firm (5), or flaccid (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (4), or an inflated leaf-sheath (2); exserted (4), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Racemes single; bilateral; bearing 5-9 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 10 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 11-14 fertile spikelets on each (1/3), or 15-20 fertile spikelets on each (2/3), or 21-30 fertile spikelets on each (1/3). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; subcylindrical and excavated. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; contiguous (1), or lax (5). Rhachis internodes oblong. Rhachis internode tip transverse. Spikelets sunken; solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; 3-5.416-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. GLUMES Glumes collateral; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1 length of upper glume; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins ribbed. Lower glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3). Upper glume lanceolate (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 1.1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; coriaceous; without keels (4), or 1-keeled (2); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2); 3 -veined, or 4 -veined (5), or 5 -veined (4). Upper glume lateral veins ribbed. Upper glume apex acute (3), or acuminate (3). FLORETS Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (4), or ovate (2); membranous; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (5), or scaberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 1 length of lemma. FLOWER Anthers 3. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid (5/5). Hilum elliptic (5/5). DISTRIBUTION Europe (5), or Africa (4), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or North America (1), or South America (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Gulf States
  • Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Middle Asia Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Pakistan
  • Europe Eastern Europe Krym
  • Middle Europe Belgium
  • Germany
  • Netherlands
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Asia-Temperate China China Southeast
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Middle Europe Czechoslovakia
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Northwest
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Michigan
  • New Jersey
  • Pennsylvania
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Oregon
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Delaware
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Southern America Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Uruguay

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.