Muhlenbergia Schreb.
  • Gen. Pl. 1: 44 (1789) 


Notes: Distribution: Afghanistan to Russian Far East and Trop. Asia, America

General Description

HABIT Annual (34), or perennial (128). Rhizomes absent (122), or short (12), or elongated (28). Stolons absent (157), or present (2). Culms erect (80/115), or geniculately ascending (31/115), or decumbent (27/115), or prostrate (5/115); robust (11/40), or slender (24/40), or weak (5/40); 1-55.99-300 cm long; firm (148), or wiry (9), or woody (2); without nodal roots (7/16), or rooting from lower nodes (15/16). Culm-internodes terete (1/2), or elliptical in section (1/2). Culm-nodes constricted (1/2), or flush with internodes (1/2). Lateral branches lacking (13/48), or sparse (10/48), or ample (31/48), or fastigiate (1/48). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (145), or erect (17). Ligule an eciliate membrane (139), or a ciliolate membrane (21), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades persistent (157), or deciduous at the ligule (4); filiform (12), or linear (148), or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (157), or coriaceous (2); stiff (10), or firm (148), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (5/8), or widened (3/8). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/12), or cartilaginous (12/12). Leaf-blade apex muticous (157), or pungent (2). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (158), or composed of racemes (1), or comprising only a few spikelets (1); terminal (154), or terminal and axillary (5); not deciduous as a whole (158), or deciduous as a whole (2); exserted (156), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (8). Panicle open (98/158), or contracted (52/158), or spiciform (16/158). Primary panicle branches not whorled (157/158), or whorled at most nodes (1/158). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (156/158), or deciduous branches (3/158). Racemes borne along a central axis (1/1); spreading (1/1), or drooping (1/1); paucilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/1); bearing 2-4 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis deciduous from axis (1/1). Spikelet packing distant (1/1). Spikelets appressed (17/25), or ascending (3/25), or spreading (5/25), or pendulous (2/25), or deflexed (3/25); solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (157). Pedicels filiform (39/60), or linear (17/60), or oblong (3/60), or reduced to a stump (1/60); tip widened (8/9), or pyriform (1/9). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets, or 2 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (158), or with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (4). Spikelets lanceolate (154), or elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (157), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (1); 0.9-3.176-8.4 mm long; falling entire (3), or breaking up at maturity (157); deciduous with accessory branch structures (3/3); disarticulating below each fertile floret (157/157). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/1). Floret callus glabrous (13/71), or sparsely hairy (1/71), or pubescent (49/71), or pilose (7/71), or bearded (1/71); truncate (2), or obtuse (157). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or two (158); persistent (157/157); shorter than spikelet (118), or reaching apex of florets (36), or exceeding apex of florets (26); thinner than fertile lemma (8), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (151). Lower glume linear (2/157), or lanceolate (112/157), or elliptic (16/157), or oblong (19/157), or ovate (22/157), or orbicular (2/157), or obovate (1/157); 0.25-0.9075-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (4/157), or membranous (151/157), or chartaceous (1/157), or coriaceous (1/157); without keels (119/157), or 1-keeled (38/157); 0 -veined (8/157), or 1 -veined (152/157), or 2 -veined (4/157), or 3 -veined (2/157), or 4-5 -veined (1/157). Lower glume lateral veins absent (154/158), or obscure (1/158), or distinct (5/158). Lower glume surface smooth (130/158), or asperulous (29/158), or scabrous (17/158); glabrous (143/158), or puberulous (6/158), or pubescent (5/158), or pilose (4/158), or hirsute (1/158), or villous (1/158), or hispidulous (1/158). Lower glume apex entire (149/158), or erose (10/158), or dentate (4/158); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (2/157), or truncate (4/157), or obtuse (42/157), or acute (97/157), or acuminate (44/157), or attenuate (12/157), or setaceously attenuate (10/157); muticous (141/157), or mucronate (22/157), or awned (21/157). Upper glume linear (2), or lanceolate (109), or elliptic (16), or oblong (22), or ovate (22), or orbicular (2), or obovate (2); 0.05-0.7304-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (151), or chartaceous (1), or coriaceous (1); without keels (121), or 1-keeled (38); 0 -veined (8/152), or 1 -veined (140/152), or 2 -veined (4/152), or 3 -veined (13/152), or 4-5 -veined (1/152). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (154/156), or ciliolate (1/156), or pubescent (1/156). Upper glume lateral veins parallel at apex (1/1). Upper glume surface smooth (131), or asperulous (30), or scabrous (19); glabrous (144), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (6), or pilose (4), or hirsute (1), or villous (1), or hispidulous (1). Upper glume apex entire (144), or erose (11), or dentate (12), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (6/13), or 3 -fid (10/13), or 4 -fid (1/13); emarginate (2/158), or truncate (9/158), or obtuse (44/158), or acute (87/158), or acuminate (45/158), or attenuate (14/158), or setaceously attenuate (12/158); muticous (139), or mucronate (22), or awned (26), or awned only on distal spikelets (1); 1 -awned (25/25), or 3 -awned (1/25). FLORETS Fertile lemma linear (8), or lanceolate (123), or elliptic (18), or oblong (8), or ovate (8), or oblanceolate (1); subterete (1/2), or dorsally compressed (1/2); membranous (151), or cartilaginous (6), or coriaceous (2); without keel (120), or keeled (39); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (158). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (157), or scabrous (2); eciliate (130), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (27). Lemma lateral veins obscure (8/18), or prominent (10/18); excurrent (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (113), or granulose (3), or asperulous (6), or scaberulous (29), or scabrous (26); glabrous (105), or puberulous (6), or pubescent (32), or pilose (12), or villous (6); hairy on back (50/56), or on veins (3/56), or between veins (3/56). Lemma margins eciliate (122), or ciliolate (3), or ciliate (8), or pubescent (30), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (127), or erose (3), or dentate (29), or lobed (2); 2 -fid (30/31), or 4 -fid (1/31); incised 0.25-0.3183-0.5 of lemma length; emarginate (3/135), or truncate (1/135), or obtuse (15/135), or acute (66/135), or acuminate (55/135), or attenuate (7/135), or setaceously attenuate (1/135), or apiculate (2/135); muticous (51), or pungent (1), or mucronate (27), or awned (119); 1 -awned (118/119), or 3 -awned (1/119). Principal lemma awn apical (108/136), or subapical (6/136), or from a sinus (23/136); straight (95/136), or curved (1/136), or flexuous (44/136), or coiled (1/136), or hooked (1/136), or geniculate (1/136); 0.9-1-1.1 length of lemma. Palea 0.5-0.984-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (155), or cartilaginous (4); 2 -veined. Palea keels smooth (158), or scaberulous (1); eciliate (158), or pubescent (1), or ciliolate (1). Palea surface glabrous (122), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (22), or pilose (11), or villous (4). Palea apex dentate (2/3), or lobed (1/3); muticous (150), or with excurrent keel veins (8), or awned (1). Apical sterile florets 0 in number (1/4), or 1 in number (4/4); male (4/4), or barren (2/4); lanceolate (4/4). Apical sterile lemmas muticous (3/4), or awned (1/4). FLOWER Lodicules 2; fleshy (158/158); truncate (1/1). Anthers 1 (1/152), or 3 (150/152), or 11-12 (1/152). Ovary glabrous (1/1). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (158/158); linear (1/143), or fusiform (133/143), or ellipsoid (6/143), or oblong (3/143); isodiametric (1/1). Embryo 0.25-0.485-0.75 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1). CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent (157), or present (2); in lower sheaths (2/2). DISTRIBUTION Temperate Asia (7), or Tropical Asia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (134), or South America (46).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Tadzhikistan
  • Russian Far East Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Bahamas
  • Cuba
  • Puerto Rico
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Europe Middle Europe Austria
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.