Melocalamus Benth.
  • G.Bentham & J.D.Hooker, Gen. Pl. 3: 1095 (1883) 


Notes: Distribution: Assam to S. China and Indo-China

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes short (13), or elongated (1); pachymorph. Culms scandent (13/13); 200-1406-3000 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes terete. Culm-nodes flush with internodes (2/5), or swollen (3/5). Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement one (1), or two (1), or three (1), or several (8), or many (5); in a horizontal line (1/1); with 1 branch dominant (7/7); as thick as stem (3/3). Culm-sheaths persistent (2/7), or tardily deciduous (2/7), or deciduous but leaving a persistent girdle (1/7), or deciduous (2/7); without auricles (4/9), or auriculate (5/9). Culm-sheath blade inconspicuous (1/13), or linear (2/13), or lanceolate (3/13), or ovate (5/13), or triangular (4/13); narrower than sheath (4/5), or as wide as sheath at base (1/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (9), or erect (2), or falcate (3). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or elliptic (3), or oblong (5), or ovate (1); herbaceous (12), or chartaceous (2). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (9), or with obscure cross veins (5). INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence bractiferous (9/9); clustered at the nodes (9/9); in globose clusters (9/9); with glumaceous subtending bracts (9/9); with axillary buds at base of spikelet (9/9); leafless between clusters (8/9), or leafless between branches (1/9). Fertile spikelets sessile (9/9). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (1/1); 1 fertile florets (2/9), or 2 fertile florets (7/9); without rhachilla extension (1/9), or with a barren rhachilla extension (7/9), or with diminished florets at the apex (1/9). Spikelets orbicular (1/9), or obovate (8/9); laterally compressed (9/9); 1.66-2.739-4 mm long; breaking up at maturity (9/9); disarticulating below each fertile floret (2/9), or above glumes but not between florets (7/9). Rhachilla internodes suppressed between florets (7/7). GLUMES Glumes two (3/9), or several (6/9); persistent (9/9); shorter than spikelet (9/9). Lower glume ovate (1/3), or orbicular (1/3), or oblate (1/3); 0.7-0.75-0.8 length of upper glume; chartaceous (3/3); without keels (3/3); 3 -veined (1/1). Lower glume apex obtuse (3/3). Upper glume ovate (1/9), or orbicular (1/9), or oblate (7/9); 0.6-0.8014-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (9/9); without keels (9/9); 5 -veined (7/7). Upper glume surface glabrous (3/9), or pubescent (3/9), or pilose (3/9). Upper glume apex obtuse (9/9). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren (1/1); with palea (1/1). Lemma of lower sterile floret orbicular (1/1); chartaceous (1/1); obtuse (1/1). Fertile lemma ovate (1/9), or orbicular (1/9), or oblate (7/9); chartaceous (8/8); of similar consistency on margins (8/9), or much thinner on margins (1/9); without keel (9/9); 3-4 -veined (1/8), or 5 -veined (6/8). Lemma lateral veins obscure (1/1). Lemma surface glabrous (4/9), or pubescent (4/9), or pilose (1/9). Lemma margins eciliate (5/9), or ciliolate (1/9), or ciliate (2/9), or pubescent (1/9). Lemma apex obtuse (9/9). Palea not rolled (4/9), or tightly convolute around flower (5/9); 1 length of lemma; 6 -veined (1/1); without keels (1/9), or 2-keeled (8/9). Palea keels eciliate (7/8), or ciliolate (1/8). Palea surface glabrous (1/9), or pubescent (8/9). Apical sterile florets 1 in number (1/1); rudimentary (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules 3 (9/9); ciliate (9/9). Anthers 6 (9/9). Stigmas 2 (4/8), or 3 (5/8). Ovary unappendaged (8/9), or umbonate (1/9); glabrous (1/1). FRUIT Caryopsis with fleshy pericarp (8/8); orbicular (8/8); isodiametric (8/8). DISTRIBUTION Temperate Asia (6), or Tropical Asia (9).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Tibet
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • Indo-China Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.