Melinis P.Beauv.
  • Ess. Agrostogr.: 54 (1812) 


Notes: Distribution: Africa, Arabian Pen.

General Description

HABIT Annual (5/21), or perennial (17/21). Culms erect (6), or geniculately ascending (8), or decumbent (10), or rambling (2); slender (4/4); 10.64-61.69-150 cm long; firm (19), or wiry (3); rooting from lower nodes (5/5). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Lateral branches ample (2/2). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (19), or lanceolate (2); stiff (1), or firm (21); without exudate (18), or viscid (4); without scent (21), or aromatic (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (21), or composed of racemes (1); exserted (21), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle open (19/21), or contracted (2/21). Racemes borne along a central axis (1/1); unilateral (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (21). Pedicels filiform (5/5). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (1), or oblong (19), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; symmetrical (11), or gibbous (11); 1-3.2-12 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated between glumes (7), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1). GLUMES Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (6), or two (16); reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong (14/16), or ovate (4/16); hyaline (7/16), or membranous (9/16); without keels (16/16); 0 -veined (14/16), or 1 -veined (10/16). Lower glume lateral veins absent (16/16). Lower glume surface glabrous (10/16), or pubescent (3/16), or pilose (4/16), or villous (2/16). Lower glume apex emarginate (6/16), or truncate (6/16), or obtuse (8/16), or acute (2/16). Upper glume elliptic (2), or oblong (19), or ovate (1); not gibbous (11), or gibbous (11); membranous (11), or chartaceous (7), or coriaceous (4); without keels; 5 -veined (12), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (12), or 9 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (21), or ribbed (2). Upper glume surface smooth (21), or scabrous (1); glabrous (12), or pubescent (9), or pilose (7), or villous (3); with simple hairs (17/18), or tubercle-based hairs (1/18); without hair tufts (20), or with a dorsal tuft of hair (3), or with transverse tufts of hair (1). Upper glume apex entire (8), or lobed (14); 2 -fid (14/14); emarginate (7/14), or truncate (1/14), or obtuse (5/14), or acute (1/14), or rostrate (3/14); muticous (7), or mucronate (8), or awned (15); 1 -awned (15/15). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (13), or barren (10); with palea (17), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (1), or oblong (20), or ovate (1); membranous (11), or chartaceous (8), or coriaceous (3); 3 -veined (3), or 4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (18), or 6 -veined (2), or 7 -veined (4), or 8-9 -veined (1); without ribs (21), or ribbed (1); emarginate (8/15), or obtuse (4/15), or acute (1/15), or rostrate (2/15); muticous (10), or mucronate (7), or awned (16). Palea of lower sterile floret wingless (16/17), or winged on keels (1/17). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or oblong (10), or ovate (12); laterally compressed; cartilaginous; without keel; 1-2 -veined (1/21), or 3 -veined (9/21), or 4 -veined (3/21), or 5 -veined (15/21). Lemma margins eciliate (20), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex entire (21), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (2/6), or truncate (1/6), or obtuse (2/6), or acute (2/6); muticous (21), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn from a sinus (1/1). Palea 0.8-1.055-1.5 length of lemma; cartilaginous; without keels. Palea surface glabrous (21), or pilose (1). FLOWER Anthers 3 (9/9). DISTRIBUTION Africa, or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (3), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (2), or South America (2).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Cape Verde
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Djibouti
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Somalia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Morocco
  • Western Sahara
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Ivory Coast
  • Mauritania
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Aldabra
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Rodrigues
  • Seychelles
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Kuwait
  • Oman
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Middle Atlantic Ocean Ascension
  • St.Helena
  • Northern Africa Egypt
  • Western Indian Ocean Chagos Archipelago
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Eastern Asia Kazan-retto
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Laos
  • Myanmar
  • South China Sea
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Christmas I.
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia Norfolk Is.
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • Northern America Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • North Carolina
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • Marshall Is.
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Easter Is.
  • Line Is.
  • Marquesas
  • Society Is.
  • Tuamotu
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • Gilbert Is.
  • Nauru
  • New Caledonia
  • Niue
  • Tonga
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Aruba
  • Bahamas
  • Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Central American Pacific Is.
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.