Koeleria Pers.
  • Syn. Pl. 1: 97 (1805) 


Notes: Distribution: Temp. Eurasia, NW. Africa, Cameroon, Ethiopia to S. Africa, New Zealand, N. America, Peru to S. South America, Falkland Is.

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (23/45), or short (17/45), or elongated (6/45). Culms erect (35/44), or geniculately ascending (11/44), or decumbent (1/44); slender (1/1); 4-36.92-100 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (11/11). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (45), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (38), or a ciliolate membrane (8). Leaf-blades filiform (7), or linear (43); stiff (15), or firm (30), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (1), or contracted (8), or spiciform (41), or capitate (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or pedicelled (45). Pedicels linear (1/5), or oblong (4/5). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (1), or 2 fertile florets (43), or 3 fertile florets (31), or 4 fertile florets (6); with a barren rhachilla extension (26), or with diminished florets at the apex (29). Spikelets lanceolate (2/45), or elliptic (2/45), or oblong (16/45), or obovate (20/45), or cuneate (12/45); laterally compressed; 2-5.25-10 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes glabrous (8), or sparsely hairy (1), or pubescent (35), or pilose (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/10), or sparsely hairy (4/10), or pubescent (6/10). GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (40), or reaching apex of florets (13); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (45); parallel to lemmas (5), or gaping (41). Lower glume lanceolate (41), or elliptic (2), or oblong (5); 0.33-0.8391-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (45); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (45); 1 -veined (37/42), or 2 -veined (2/42), or 3 -veined (7/42). Lower glume lateral veins absent (37), or distinct (11). Lower glume surface smooth (45), or asperulous (3); glabrous (44), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse (4), or acute (30), or acuminate (13), or attenuate (2); muticous (45), or mucronate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (21), or elliptic (5), or oblong (17), or ovate (3), or obovate (2); 0.66-0.955-1.25 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (45); with undifferentiated margins (32), or hyaline margins (14); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (45); 3 -veined (40/40), or 4-7 -veined (1/40). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (44), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (45), or asperulous (3); glabrous (44), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (5), or villous (1). Upper glume apex entire, or erose (1); obtuse (4), or acute (34), or acuminate (9), or attenuate (2); muticous (44), or mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (6), or elliptic (10), or oblong (27), or ovate (2), or obovate (1), or oblanceolate (1); membranous (44), or chartaceous (2); of similar consistency on margins (32), or much thinner on margins (14); without keel (1), or keeled (45); 3 -veined (13/27), or 4 -veined (2/27), or 5 -veined (16/27). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (40), or scaberulous (1), or scabrous (5). Lemma lateral veins obscure (5/6), or distinct (1/6); stopping well short of apex (3/3). Lemma surface smooth (37), or asperulous (4), or scaberulous (4), or scabrous (3); glabrous (34), or puberulous (8), or pubescent (4), or pilose (2), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (44), or dentate (3); 2 -fid (3/3); emarginate (1/45), or obtuse (5/45), or acute (31/45), or acuminate (15/45), or attenuate (4/45), or setaceously attenuate (4/45); muticous (28), or mucronate (12), or awned (18); 0 -awned (1/18), or 1 -awned (18/18). Principal lemma awn apical (10/26), or subapical (16/26); straight (25/26), or curved (2/26). Palea embraced by lemma (4), or gaping (42); 0.5-0.9462-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (45). Palea keels smooth (35), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (4); eciliate (44), or ciliolate (2). Palea apex dentate (3/3); muticous (45), or with excurrent keel veins (1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (29/29). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (39/39); membranous (37/37); 2-toothed (9/9). Anthers 3 (45/45). Ovary glabrous (33/33). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (28/28); fusiform (4/8), or ellipsoid (2/8), or oblong (1/8), or ovoid (1/8); laterally compressed (4/4). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum elliptic (5/5); 0.2-0.225-0.25 length of caryopsis. DISTRIBUTION Europe (20), or Africa (7), or Temperate Asia (17), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (3), or South America (11), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Falkland Is.
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent East Himalaya (Doubtful)
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Australasia New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Indiana
  • Maine
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Vermont
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.