Isachne R.Br.
  • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 196 (1810) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop.

General Description

HABIT Annual (32), or perennial (67). Rhizomes absent (92), or elongated (4). Stolons absent (94), or present (2). Culms erect (29/92), or geniculately ascending (32/92), or decumbent (30/92), or prostrate (15/92), or rambling (12/92), or leaning (1/92), or scandent (4/92); robust (2/16), or slender (11/16), or weak (3/16); 2-53.61-600 cm long; firm (88), or wiry (4), or woody (5); without nodal roots (2/35), or rooting from lower nodes (35/35). Culm-internodes terete (3/3). Culm-nodes swollen (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (4/30), or sparse (8/30), or ample (20/30), or fastigiate (1/30). Ligule an eciliate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (3), or a fringe of hairs (85), or absent (10). Leaf-blades linear (33), or lanceolate (74), or elliptic (8), or oblong (3), or ovate (17); membranous (2), or herbaceous (90), or coriaceous (4); stiff (15), or firm (80), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (3/7), or evident (1/7), or conspicuous (3/7). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (95), or with distinct cross veins (1). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (5/48), or cartilaginous (45/48). Leaf-blade apex muticous (95), or pungent (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1); terminal (95), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (94), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Panicle open (89), or contracted (7), or spiciform (1). Racemes single (1/1); paucilateral (1/1); bearing few fertile spikelets (1/1). Spikelet packing lax (1/1). Spikelets appressed (1/2), or spreading (1/2); solitary (94), or in pairs (2). Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (24/27), or linear (1/27), or clavate (2/27); tip rectangular (1/4), or widened (3/4). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/21), or 1 basal sterile florets (21/21); 1 fertile florets (26), or 2 fertile florets (73); without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (23), or oblong (8), or ovate (14), or orbicular (50), or obovate (21); of unremarkable solid shape (95), or globose (1); subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (95); 0.5-1.923-4.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (76), or above glumes but not between florets (20). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (92), or elongated between glumes (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2); suppressed between florets (10/74), or definite (64/74); glabrous (62/64), or pubescent (2/64). Floret callus woolly (2/2). GLUMES Glumes deciduous; shorter than spikelet (41), or reaching apex of florets (45), or exceeding apex of florets (15); thinner than fertile lemma; incurved at apex (1), or parallel to lemmas (93), or gaping (2). Lower glume lanceolate (9), or elliptic (19), or oblong (14), or ovate (54), or orbicular (14), or obovate (6); 0.8-0.9966-1.1 length of upper glume; membranous (90), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); without keels; 3 -veined (8/80), or 4 -veined (2/80), or 5 -veined (44/80), or 6 -veined (16/80), or 7 -veined (40/80), or 8 -veined (18/80), or 9 -veined (23/80), or 10-11 -veined (4/80). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (6), or distinct (90). Lower glume surface convex (95), or flat (1); smooth (89), or asperulous (5), or scabrous (4); glabrous (51), or puberulous (15), or pubescent (23), or pilose (4), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (12), or hispid (5), or setose (3). Lower glume apex emarginate (1/95), or truncate (1/95), or obtuse (64/95), or acute (22/95), or acuminate (7/95), or cuspidate (5/95). Upper glume lanceolate (8), or elliptic (19), or oblong (7), or ovate (56), or orbicular (15), or obovate (8); 1-1.117-2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (90), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (87), or hyaline margins (9); without keels; 3 -veined (3/75), or 4 -veined (2/75), or 5 -veined (39/75), or 6 -veined (18/75), or 7 -veined (43/75), or 8 -veined (17/75), or 9 -veined (26/75), or 10-11 -veined (7/75). Upper glume surface smooth (90), or asperulous (5), or scabrous (3); glabrous (49), or puberulous (17), or pubescent (19), or pilose (8), or hirsute (1), or hispidulous (11), or hispid (5), or setose (4); with simple hairs (57/65), or tubercle-based hairs (8/65). Upper glume apex emarginate (1/95), or truncate (2/95), or obtuse (65/95), or acute (22/95), or acuminate (4/95), or attenuate (1/95), or cuspidate (5/95), or caudate (1/95). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (24/24); with palea (22/22). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (11/22), or oblong (6/22), or ovate (9/22); 1-1.37-1.7 length of fertile lemma; membranous (5/18), or chartaceous (7/18), or herbaceous (2/18), or cartilaginous (2/18), or coriaceous (3/18); 5 -veined (5/6), or 6 -veined (1/6), or 7 -veined (2/6), or 8-9 -veined (1/6); without grooves (25/26), or sulcate (1/26); obtuse (9/11), or acute (2/11). Fertile florets bisexual (90), or female (11). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (32), or oblong (9), or ovate (30), or orbicular (41), or obovate (8); hemispherical (5/5); chartaceous (4), or cartilaginous (10), or coriaceous (77), or indurate (6); without keel; 0 -veined (1/14), or 5 -veined (12/14), or 6 -veined (9/14), or 7 -veined (10/14), or 8-9 -veined (1/14). Lemma lateral veins obscure (11/11). Lemma surface smooth (93), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled (95), or rugulose (1); glabrous (47), or puberulous (35), or pubescent (18), or pilose (1). Lemma margins involute; exposing palea (92), or interlocking with palea keels (4); eciliate (92), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1), or pubescent (3). Lemma apex obtuse (93), or acute (2), or acuminate (1); without ornament, or pubescent (1). Palea 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (4), or cartilaginous (8), or coriaceous (78), or indurate (5); 0 -veined (1/78), or 2 -veined (77/78). Palea surface glabrous (87), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (4), or pilose (1). FLOWER Lodicules 1 (1/7), or 2 (6/7); fleshy (4/4). Anthers 2 (1/80), or 3 (80/80). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (78/78); ellipsoid (5/13), or oblong (1/13), or ovoid (4/13), or orbicular (3/13), or obovoid (1/13); laterally compressed (1/3), or dorsally compressed (2/3); plano-convex (3/3). DISTRIBUTION Africa (14), or Temperate Asia (20), or Tropical Asia (59), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (9), or North America (3), or South America (12).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • West Tropical Africa Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Nigeria
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Réunion
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Oman
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Manchuria
  • Tibet
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • South-Central Pacific Cook Is.
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Vanuatu
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.