Imperata Cirillo
  • Pl. Rar. Neapol. 2: XXVI (1792) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop.

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (3), or elongated (8). Culms erect (9/10), or geniculately ascending (2/10), or decumbent (1/10); 10-87.59-200 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (6/6). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (10), or erect (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1); herbaceous (10), or coriaceous (1); stiff (8), or firm (3). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/2), or widened (1/2). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme; exserted (10), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Panicle contracted (2), or spiciform (10). Racemes bearing few fertile spikelets. Rhachis subterete (10/10). Rhachis internodes filiform. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform (10), or clavate (1); tip widened (1/5), or discoid (4/5). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (6), or elliptic (5), or oblong (1); subterete; 1.5-3.339-6 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus bearded; base truncate. GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (9), or oblong (2); membranous; without keels; 3 -veined (5/10), or 4 -veined (3/10), or 5 -veined (7/10), or 6-7 -veined (1/10). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (10). Lower glume surface smooth, or asperulous (1); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (9). Lower glume apex obtuse (2/3), or acuminate (1/3). Upper glume lanceolate (9), or oblong (2); membranous; with undifferentiated margins (10), or hyaline margins (1); without keels; 3 -veined (5/10), or 5 -veined (4/10), or 6 -veined (3/10), or 7 -veined (4/10). Upper glume surface smooth, or scabrous (1); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (9). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/3), or acute (1/3), or acuminate (1/3). FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or oblong (10); hyaline; 0 -veined (9/10), or 1 -veined (1/10); obtuse (8/9), or acuminate (1/9). Fertile lemma linear (1), or ovate (10); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (10), or 1 -veined (1). Lemma surface glabrous (10), or puberulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (10), or ciliate (1). Lemma apex entire (7), or erose (2), or dentate (2); 3 -fid (2/2); obtuse (1/5), or acute (4/5). Palea 0.5 length of lemma; hyaline (9), or membranous (2); 0 -veined (9/9); without keels (9), or 2-keeled (2). FLOWER Lodicules absent (10), or 2 (1). Anthers 1 (7/10), or 2 (3/10). Stigmas 2. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); obovoid (1/1). DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (3), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (4), or South America (6).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Cape Verde
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Ethiopia
  • Socotra
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Burkina
  • Gambia, The
  • Ghana
  • Guinea
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Ivory Coast
  • Liberia
  • Mali
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Sierra Leone
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Gabon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Kuwait
  • Oman (Doubtful)
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Yemen
  • China Hainan
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Cyprus
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Sinai
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Malaya
  • Philippines
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Australasia New Zealand Kermadec Is.
  • Europe Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Pacific Northwestern Pacific Caroline Is.
  • Marianas
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
  • Vanuatu
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Bahamas
  • Cayman Is.
  • Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile North
  • Chile South
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Ogasawara-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Cambodia
  • Laos
  • Nicobar Is.
  • South China Sea
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Christmas I.
  • Cocos (Keeling) Is.
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Maluku
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • Australasia Australia Norfolk Is.
  • New Zealand New Zealand North
  • Northern America Northwestern U.S.A. Oregon
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Louisiana
  • Mississippi
  • South Carolina
  • Virginia

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.