Ichnanthus P.Beauv.
  • Ess. Agrostogr.: 56 (1812) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop.

General Description

HABIT Annual (7), or perennial (25). Rhizomes absent (24), or short (1), or elongated (6). Stolons absent (30), or present (1). Culms erect (14/28), or geniculately ascending (6/28), or decumbent (9/28), or prostrate (2/28), or rambling (6/28), or scandent (2/28); robust (2/3), or slender (1/3); 6-115.9-1000 cm long; firm (30), or woody (2); with prop roots (1/9), or rooting from lower nodes (9/9). Lateral branches lacking (2/9), or sparse (4/9), or ample (3/9). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (27), or erect (4). Ligule an eciliate membrane (2), or a ciliolate membrane (5), or a ciliate membrane (19), or a fringe of hairs (5). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (22), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (9), or with a false petiole (4). Leaf-blades linear (5), or lanceolate (28), or elliptic (3), or oblong (4), or ovate (6); membranous (4), or herbaceous (26), or coriaceous (1); stiff (3), or firm (27), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/1). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (3), or with obscure cross veins (1), or with distinct cross veins (27). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (3/3). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle (26), or composed of racemes (8); terminal (27), or terminal and axillary (7); exserted (30), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (2). Panicle open (26/26). Primary panicle branches not whorled (20/26), or whorled at lower nodes (2/26), or whorled at most nodes (4/26). Racemes borne along a central axis (8/8); appressed (1/8), or erect (1/8), or ascending (7/8); unilateral (1/1). Rhachis angular (1/1). Spikelet packing crowded (3/8), or lax (3/8), or distant (2/8). Spikelets appressed (4/27), or ascending (23/27); in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile (1), or sessile and pedicelled (16), or pedicelled (14); 2 in the cluster (30/30). Pedicels filiform (25/26), or oblong (1/26). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (30/30). Spikelets lanceolate (16), or elliptic (7), or oblong (7), or ovate (4); laterally compressed; 2-4.648-10 mm long; falling entire. Floret callus without wings (1), or winged (30); with apical wings adnate to lemma (18/30), or apical wings shrivelled to concave scars (9/30), or apical wings reduced to convex swellings (3/30). GLUMES Glumes distichous (30), or lateral (1); shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (29), or gaping (2). Lower glume lanceolate (16), or elliptic (1), or oblong (3), or ovate (16), or obovate (2); clasping (1/1); membranous (1), or herbaceous (29), or cartilaginous (1); 1-keeled; 1-2 -veined (3), or 3 -veined (28), or 4 -veined (7), or 5 -veined (9), or 6 -veined (1), or 7-9 -veined (2). Lower glume lateral veins absent (3), or distinct; without ribs (23), or ribbed (8). Lower glume surface smooth (28), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (2); glabrous (24), or pubescent (2), or pilose (9), or villous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (3), or acute (16), or acuminate (4), or attenuate (4), or setaceously attenuate (2), or cuspidate (5), or caudate (1); muticous (29), or awned (2). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (13), or elliptic (6), or oblong (7), or ovate (11); 0.9-0.95-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous (30), or cartilaginous (1); with undifferentiated margins (30), or hyaline margins (1); without keels (3/30), or 1-keeled (27/30); 3 -veined (2), or 4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (26), or 6 -veined (7), or 7 -veined (11), or 8-9 -veined (2), or 10-11 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (24), or ribbed (7). Upper glume surface smooth (30), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (1); glabrous (23), or pubescent (3), or pilose (9), or villous (2); with simple hairs (12/13), or tubercle-based hairs (1/13). Upper glume apex obtuse (4), or acute (16), or acuminate (11), or attenuate (1), or setaceously attenuate (1), or cuspidate (2), or caudate (1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (4), or barren (27); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (8/30), or elliptic (3/30), or oblong (16/30), or ovate (10/30); cartilaginous (1/1); 3 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (27), or 6 -veined (6), or 7 -veined (9), or 8-11 -veined (1); without ribs (24), or ribbed (7); obtuse (4/30), or acute (18/30), or acuminate (8/30), or setaceously attenuate (1/30), or cuspidate (1/30), or caudate (1/30). Fertile lemma lanceolate (6/30), or elliptic (16/30), or oblong (9/30), or ovate (2/30), or obovate (1/30); dorsally compressed (30/30); chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (1), or indurate (29); without keel (30/30); 5 -veined (1/1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (4/4). Lemma margins involute; eciliate (30), or ciliolate (2). Lemma apex obtuse (9), or acute (21), or acuminate (2); without ornament (30), or pubescent (1). Palea not rolled (1), or involute (30); cartilaginous (1), or indurate (30). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (23/23); fleshy (23/23). Anthers 3 (28/28). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong (1/1); dorsally compressed (1/1). Hilum elliptic (1/1). DISTRIBUTION Africa (1), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or North America (6), or South America.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa West Tropical Africa Liberia
  • Sierra Leone
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Cameroon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Sri Lanka
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Malaya
  • Philippines
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia Queensland
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Netherlands Antilles
  • Puerto Rico
  • Trinidad-Tobago
  • Venezuelan Antilles
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Galápagos
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
TreeBASE
http://treebase.org/treebase-web/home.html
  • C All Rights Reserved
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.