Holcus L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 1047 (1753) 


Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Macaronesia, Europe, Medit. to Caucasus, S. Africa

General Description

HABIT Annual (2), or perennial (6). Rhizomes absent (6), or short (1), or elongated (1). Culms erect (5/6), or geniculately ascending (6/6), or decumbent (1/6); 8-50.5-120 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades stiff (1), or firm (7). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (4), or contracted (4). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets (7), or 2 fertile florets (1); with a barren rhachilla extension (1), or with diminished florets at the apex (7). Spikelets elliptic, or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 3-5.406-11 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (7). Floret callus pubescent (1/6), or pilose (4/6), or bearded (1/6). GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (5), or elliptic (3); 0.75-0.9844-1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface smooth (5), or asperulous (3); glabrous (5), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (2), or acute (4), or acuminate (3), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (5), or awned (3). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (6), or oblong (1), or ovate (1); 2-2.125-3.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (3), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (4). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (7), or ribbed (1). Upper glume surface smooth (4), or asperulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (2), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (5). Upper glume apex entire, or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (2), or acute (2), or acuminate (3), or setaceously attenuate (1); muticous (2), or mucronate (3), or awned (3); 1 -awned (3/3). FLORETS Fertile lemma elliptic (5), or ovate (3); cartilaginous; without keel (1/7), or keeled (6/7); 3-4 -veined (6), or 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure (7/7). Lemma surface glabrous, or puberulous (1). Lemma apex obtuse (7), or acute (1); muticous (6), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2). Principal lemma awn subapical (1/2), or dorsal (1/2); geniculate (2/2). Palea 1 length of lemma. Apical sterile florets 1 in number (7/7); male (6/7), or barren (1/7); linear (1/7), or elliptic (5/7), or ovate (1/7). Apical sterile lemmas awned (7/7). Apical sterile lemma awns straight (2/7), or geniculate (3/7), or hooked (2/7). FLOWER Anthers 3. Ovary glabrous. DISTRIBUTION Europe (6), or Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (2), or Australasia (4), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Selvagens
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • Western Asia East Aegean Is.
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • Krym
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Southern Africa KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Amsterdam-St.Paul Is.
  • Crozet Is.
  • Falkland Is.
  • Kerguelen
  • Marion-Prince Edward Is.
  • Tristan da Cunha
  • Asia-Temperate China China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kuril Is.
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent East Himalaya
  • Sri Lanka
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Antipodean Is.
  • Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe North European Russia
  • Northern Europe Finland
  • Iceland
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Missouri
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Caribbean Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Puerto Rico
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.