Hierochloe R.Br.
  • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 208 (1810) 


Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Subarctic & Temp., New Guinea, Mexico to Andes

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (12), or short (7), or elongated (14). Culms erect (12/15), or geniculately ascending (3/15), or decumbent (1/15); robust (1/1); 5-51.96-130 cm long; firm (32), or wiry (1). Lateral branches lacking (4/5), or ample (1/5). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (32), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (30), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a ciliate membrane (1). Leaf-blades persistent (32), or deciduous at the ligule (1); filiform (1), or linear (32); herbaceous (32), or coriaceous (1); stiff (4), or firm (29); without exudate (32), or pruinose (1); without scent (15), or aromatic (18). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (32), or with distinct cross veins (1). Leaf-blade surface with rounded ribs (1/4), or rectangular ribs (3/4). Leaf-blade apex muticous (32), or pungent (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open (21), or contracted (5), or spiciform (7). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets elliptic (16), or oblong (7), or ovate (7), or cuneate (5); laterally compressed; 2.5-5.753-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (30), or elongated between basal sterile florets (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (3). Floret callus glabrous (1/5), or pubescent (2/5), or pilose (2/5). GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (14), or reaching apex of florets (17), or exceeding apex of florets (14); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (27), or gaping (6). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or ovate (27), or obovate (2); 0.5-0.9355-1 length of upper glume; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (11/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (21/30). Lower glume lateral veins absent (10), or distinct (24). Lower glume apex obtuse (11/31), or acute (25/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (26), or oblate (1), or obovate (2); 0.5-1.336-2.2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (6), or membranous (25), or herbaceous (1), or scarious (1); with undifferentiated margins (29), or scarious margins (4); without keels (1), or 1-keeled (32); 1 -veined (4/30), or 2 -veined (2/30), or 3 -veined (28/30). Upper glume surface smooth (32), or asperulous (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (12/31), or acute (24/31); muticous (31), or mucronate (2). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (30), or barren (3); with palea (30), or without significant palea (3). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (2), or elliptic (21), or oblong (11); 0.9-1.183-1.5 length of fertile lemma; membranous (9), or chartaceous (23), or coriaceous (1); 3-4 -veined (1/25), or 5 -veined (25/25); emarginate (3/30), or truncate (3/30), or obtuse (24/30), or acute (3/30); muticous (10), or mucronate (8), or awned (23). Fertile florets bisexual (28), or female (5). Fertile lemma lanceolate (1), or elliptic (2), or oblong (5), or ovate (27); membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or cartilaginous (30); without keel (32), or keeled (1); 3 -veined (3/16), or 4 -veined (2/16), or 5 -veined (15/16). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (32), or scaberulous (1); eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/2). Lemma surface smooth (27), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (3); glabrous (12), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (16), or pilose (2); without hair tufts (32), or with conspicuous apical hairs (1). Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; eciliate (29), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (2). Lemma apex emarginate (1/27), or truncate (1/27), or obtuse (4/27), or acute (23/27); without ornament (31), or pubescent (2); muticous (29), or mucronate (11), or awned (2); 1 -awned (1/1). Principal lemma awn apical (6/12), or subapical (6/12). Palea 0.8-0.92-1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (26/27), or 3 -veined (1/27); without keels (26), or 1-keeled (7). Palea apex dentate (1/1). FLOWER Lodicules absent (2/14), or 2 (12/14). Anthers 2 (27/32), or 3 (30/32). Stigmas 2 (3/3); plumose (31), or pubescent (2). Ovary unappendaged (32), or beaked (1); glabrous (28/28). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (32/32); fusiform (1/3), or ellipsoid (1/3), or obovoid (1/3). Embryo 0.3-0.45-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (2/4), or linear (2/4). DISTRIBUTION Europe (6), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (10), or North America (6), or South America (9), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Falkland Is.
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • Iran
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • West Himalaya
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • New Zealand Antipodean Is.
  • Chatham Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Svalbard
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Bulgaria
  • Italy
  • Romania
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe France
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Labrador
  • New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Minnesota
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Delaware
  • Maryland
  • North Carolina
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Aleutian Is.
  • Greenland
  • Northwest Territories
  • Nunavut
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Central America Costa Rica
  • Guatemala
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.