Hemarthria R.Br.
  • Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl.: 207 (1810) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop. Old World to W. & SW. Australia

General Description

HABIT Annual (1), or perennial (11). Stolons absent (5), or present (7). Culms erect (1/10), or geniculately ascending (1/10), or prostrate (8/10); 16.72-95.13-250 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (7/7). Culm-internodes elliptical in section (1/1). Lateral branches sparse (1/11), or ample (10/11). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (1), or a ciliate membrane (11). Leaf-blades linear, or lanceolate (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence composed of racemes; subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (3), or an inflated leaf-sheath (9); exserted (11), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes single. Rhachis fracturing into irregular segments; flattened. Rhachis internodes columnar (8), or oblong (2), or cuneate (2); unspecialized (3), or adherent to upper glume of sessile spikelet (9). Rhachis internode tip transverse (3), or oblique (9); flat. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels fused to internode; oblong; tip rectangular. STERILE SPIKELETS Companion sterile spikelets rudimentary (1), or well-developed (11); deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet glumes muticous (2/3), or awned (3/3). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (4), or elliptic (4), or oblong (6); dorsally compressed; 3-7.295-24 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus square (1), or cuneate (11); glabrous (11), or pubescent (1); base truncate; attached transversely (1), or attached obliquely (11). GLUMES Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (4), or elliptic (4), or oblong (6); herbaceous (11), or coriaceous (1); 2-keeled; wingless (1), or winged on keel (11); 7 -veined (2/3), or 9-15 -veined (1/3). Lower glume intercarinal veins distinct (11/11). Lower glume surface convex (2), or flat (10); not waisted, or transversely waisted (2). Lower glume apex entire (11), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); emarginate (3), or truncate (1), or obtuse (5), or acute (4), or acuminate (4), or attenuate (2), or setaceously attenuate (1), or rostrate (1), or caudate (2); muticous, or awned (1). Upper glume linear (2), or elliptic (2), or oblong (8); membranous (11), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 3 -veined, or 4-5 -veined (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/11), or acute (7/11), or acuminate (4/11), or attenuate (4/11), or setaceously attenuate (2/11), or cuspidate (1/11), or caudate (1/11); muticous, or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (4), or barren (9); with palea (5), or without significant palea (7). Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined (2/2); obtuse (11/11). Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined. Lemma apex obtuse (11/11). Palea present (2), or absent or minute (10); hyaline (2/2); 0 -veined (2/2); without keels (2/2). FLOWER Anthers 3 (10/10). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; obovoid (2/2); dorsally compressed (2/2). DISTRIBUTION Europe (1), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (10), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Canary Is.
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Egypt
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Caprivi Strip
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Namibia
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Ivory Coast
  • Mali
  • Niger
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Comoros
  • Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Saudi Arabia
  • Caucasus Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Nansei-shoto
  • Taiwan
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Khabarovsk
  • Primorye
  • Western Asia Afghanistan
  • East Aegean Is.
  • Iraq
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • Bangladesh
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Andaman Is.
  • Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Nicobar Is.
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Malaya
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia Western Australia
  • Europe Southeastern Europe Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Sicilia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Asia-Tropical Papuasia Solomon Is.
  • Northern America Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Pennsylvania
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Florida
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Jamaica
  • Central America El Salvador
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Northern South America French Guiana
  • Guyana
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.