Helictotrichon Besser
  • J.A.Schultes & J.H.Schultes, Mant. 3: 526 (1827) 


Notes: Distribution: Subarctic & Temp. to Trop. Mts.

General Description

HABIT Perennial. Rhizomes absent (75), or short (18), or elongated (13). Stolons absent (97), or present (3). Culms erect (45/48), or geniculately ascending (13/48), or decumbent (4/48); robust (3/11), or slender (8/11); 10-62-160 cm long; without nodal roots (1/1), or rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (14/19), or elliptical in section (12/19). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (23/23). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (4/10), or tubular for much of their length (6/10). Ligule an eciliate membrane (83), or a ciliolate membrane (18), or a ciliate membrane (1), or a fringe of hairs (2). Leaf-blades persistent (99), or deciduous at the ligule (1); aciculate (2), or filiform (18), or linear (83); herbaceous (99), or fleshy (1); stiff (13), or firm (84), or flaccid (4); without exudate (98), or pruinose (3). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (1/2), or conspicuous (1/2). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (1/8), or cartilaginous (7/8). Leaf-blade apex muticous (95), or pungent (5). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (96), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (4). Panicle open (76), or contracted (27). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile (2), or pedicelled (99). Pedicels filiform (1/9), or linear (3/9), or clavate (5/9); tip widened (1/1). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2-4-10 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (34), or with diminished florets at the apex (75). Spikelets lanceolate (2), or elliptic (1), or oblong (89), or cuneate (10); laterally compressed; 5-13.93-34 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret (95), or above glumes but not between florets (5). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (20), or pubescent (7), or pilose (71), or villous (4). Floret callus brief (97), or evident (2), or elongated (1); pubescent (16/84), or pilose (68/84). GLUMES Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet (93), or reaching apex of florets (8), or exceeding apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume linear (2), or lanceolate (53), or elliptic (45), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); 0.5-0.7782-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (5), or membranous (89), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); without keels (2), or 1-keeled (98); 1 -veined (56), or 2 -veined (13), or 3 -veined (56), or 4 -veined (7), or 5 -veined (6). Lower glume lateral veins absent (55), or obscure (5), or distinct (52). Lower glume surface smooth (97), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (75), or acuminate (26), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (99), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (44), or elliptic (50), or oblong (8), or ovate (1); 0.5-1.006-1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (5), or membranous (89), or chartaceous (2), or herbaceous (4); with undifferentiated margins (85), or hyaline margins (14), or membranous margins (1); without keels (2), or 1-keeled (98); 1 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (87), or 4 -veined (14), or 5 -veined (25), or 6 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (6). Upper glume surface smooth (94), or asperulous (6), or scabrous (1), or papillose (1). Upper glume apex acute (77), or acuminate (21), or setaceously attenuate (2); muticous (98), or mucronate (3), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). FLORETS Fertile lemma lanceolate (18), or elliptic (54), or oblong (24), or ovate (2), or obovate (4); membranous (2), or chartaceous (5), or herbaceous (4), or cartilaginous (90), or coriaceous (2); of similar consistency above (88), or much thinner above (12); of similar consistency on margins (95), or much thinner on margins (5); without keel (99), or keeled (1); 5 -veined (73/98), or 6 -veined (45/98), or 7 -veined (69/98), or 8 -veined (5/98), or 9 -veined (6/98), or 10-11 -veined (1/98). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (99), or scabrous (1); eciliate (97), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (2). Lemma lateral veins obscure (2/4), or distinct (1/4), or prominent (1/4); without ribs (98), or ribbed (2); excurrent (3/3). Lemma surface smooth (64), or granulose (6), or asperulous (3), or scaberulous (13), or scabrous (14), or papillose (4), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (92), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (5), or pilose (1), or hispidulous (1), or hispid (1). Lemma apex entire (4), or erose (1), or dentate (95), or lobed (1); 2 -fid (88/96), or 3 -fid (3/96), or 4 -fid (11/96); incised 0.25 of lemma length; emarginate (1/28), or obtuse (5/28), or acute (13/28), or acuminate (1/28), or attenuate (1/28), or setaceously attenuate (13/28); awned; 1 -awned (82), or 3 -awned (16), or 5 -awned (2). Principal lemma awn subapical (1), or dorsal; straight (4), or curved (2), or flexuous (2), or geniculate (93). Column of lemma awn glabrous (89/94), or puberulous (2/94), or pubescent (1/94), or hirtellous (2/94). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (4/4). Palea embraced by lemma (99), or gaping (1); 0.3-0.8187-1 length of lemma; hyaline (1), or membranous (99); 2 -veined (1/1). Palea keels wingless (99), or winged (1); smooth (97), or scabrous (3); eciliate (26), or pubescent (6), or ciliolate (61), or ciliate (8). Palea surface glabrous (99), or puberulous (1). Palea apex dentate (1/1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (66/75), or distinct from fertile (9/75); rudimentary (8/8). FLOWER Lodicules 2 (22/22); membranous (9/9); glabrous (22/22), or ciliate (1/22); entire (1/1); obtuse (1/9), or acute (9/9). Anthers 1-2 (1), or 3. Stigmas 2 (1/1). Ovary glabrous (9/99), or pubescent on apex (87/99), or pubescent all over (3/99). FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (95/95); fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (1/5), or oblong (3/5). Embryo 0.1-0.241-0.35 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/92), or linear (91/92); 0.2-0.3472-0.5 length of caryopsis. CLEISTOGENES AND VIVIPARY Cleistogenes absent, or present (1); in upper sheaths (1/1), or in lower sheaths (1/1). DISTRIBUTION Europe (38), or Africa (29), or Temperate Asia (30), or Tropical Asia (7), or Australasia (10), or North America (4), or South America (2).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Eritrea
  • Ethiopia
  • Sudan
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Libya
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Angola
  • Malawi
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • Swaziland
  • West Tropical Africa Nigeria
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Cameroon
  • Gulf of Guinea Is.
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Asia-Temperate Arabian Peninsula Yemen
  • Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Inner Mongolia
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Tadzhikistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Uzbekistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Amur
  • Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Magadan
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Iran
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • West Himalaya
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Québec
  • North-Central U.S.A. Minnesota
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Vermont
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Northwest Territories
  • Yukon
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
Introduced into
  • Northern America Eastern Canada Ontario
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • New Jersey
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Delaware
  • Louisiana

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update. Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.