Anthoxanthum L.
  • Sp. Pl.: 28 (1753) 


Notes: Distribution: Temp. & Subtrop. Old World to Trop. Mts.

General Description

HABIT Annual (4), or perennial (13). Rhizomes absent (10), or short (1), or elongated (6). Culms erect (7/10), or geniculately ascending (5/10), or decumbent (2/10), or rambling (2/10); slender (2/5), or weak (3/5); 7-43.41-120 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (12/13), or sparse (3/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (15), or lanceolate (2); stiff (2), or firm (12), or flaccid (3); without scent (4), or aromatic (13). Leaf-blade apex muticous (16), or pungent (1). INFLORESCENCE Inflorescence a panicle, or composed of racemes (1). Panicle open (3), or contracted (7), or spiciform (9). Racemes single (1/1); lanceolate (1/1); paucilateral (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong (9/9). FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (7), or elliptic (2), or oblong (9), or obovate (1); laterally compressed; 2.49-6.801-13 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (15), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). GLUMES Glumes persistent; reaching apex of florets (1), or exceeding apex of florets (16); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1), or ovate (14); 0.5-0.6418-0.9 length of upper glume; hyaline (1), or membranous (15), or chartaceous (1); 1-keeled; 1 -veined (14), or 3 -veined (3), or 4-5 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or distinct (3). Lower glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (7), or acuminate (10); muticous (16), or mucronate (2). Upper glume lanceolate (7), or elliptic (5), or oblong (2), or ovate (4), or obovate (1); 1.5-2.626-5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (16), or chartaceous (1); with undifferentiated margins (13), or hyaline margins (3), or scarious margins (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Upper glume surface glabrous (15), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex acute (10), or acuminate (8); muticous (15), or mucronate (3). FLORETS Basal sterile florets male (5), or barren (15); with palea (5), or without significant palea (15). Lemma of lower sterile floret linear (1), or oblong (16); 1.3-1.85-2.8 length of fertile lemma; membranous (5), or chartaceous (10), or scarious (2); 3 -veined (1/14), or 4 -veined (2/14), or 5 -veined (13/14); emarginate (3/15), or truncate (1/15), or obtuse (11/15); muticous (1), or awned (16). Fertile lemma elliptic (1), or oblong (6), or ovate (3), or orbicular (10); cartilaginous; without keel; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea. Lemma apex emarginate (4), or obtuse (13); muticous, or mucronate (1), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1). Palea 1 length of lemma; 1 -veined (16), or 2 -veined (1); without keels (16), or 2-keeled (1). FLOWER Lodicules absent. Anthers 2 (16), or 3 (2). Stigmas 2; pubescent. FRUIT Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; lanceolate (1/7), or ellipsoid (6/7), or oblong (1/7). Embryo 0.25-0.31-0.33 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform. DISTRIBUTION Europe (5), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (9), or Tropical Asia (5), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (1), or Antarctica (1).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Azores
  • Canary Is.
  • Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Ethiopia
  • Northern Africa Algeria
  • Morocco
  • Tunisia
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Southern Africa Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Lesotho
  • Northern Provinces
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China South-Central
  • Manchuria
  • Tibet
  • Xinjiang
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Kirgizistan
  • Turkmenistan
  • Mongolia Mongolia
  • Russian Far East Kuril Is.
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Chita
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Western Asia East Aegean Is.
  • Iran
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent Assam
  • East Himalaya
  • India
  • Nepal
  • Pakistan
  • Sri Lanka
  • Indo-China Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Malesia Jawa
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia New Guinea
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • Krym
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Føroyar
  • Great Britain
  • Iceland
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Baleares
  • Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
Introduced into
  • Africa Middle Atlantic Ocean St.Helena
  • Western Indian Ocean Réunion
  • Antarctic Subantarctic Islands Amsterdam-St.Paul Is.
  • Falkland Is.
  • Kerguelen
  • Macquarie Is.
  • South Georgia
  • Tristan da Cunha
  • Asia-Temperate China China Southeast
  • Russian Far East Sakhalin
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent West Himalaya
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Antipodean Is.
  • Chatham Is.
  • Kermadec Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Newfoundland
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexico Central
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Oklahoma
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • South-Central U.S.A. New Mexico
  • Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. California
  • Subarctic America Alaska
  • Aleutian Is.
  • Greenland
  • Western Canada British Columbia
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • South-Central Pacific Marquesas
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Caribbean Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Central America Costa Rica
  • Northern South America Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Chile South
  • Juan Fernández Is.
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

 Information From

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db/
Clayton, W.D., Vorontsova, M.S., Harman, K.T. and Williamson, H. (2006 onwards). GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html. [accessed 24 January 2012; 14:30 GMT]
  • A © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.