Gladiolus dichrous (Bullock) Goldblatt
  • Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Adansonia 11: 426 (1989 publ. 1990) 


Notes: Distribution: Sudan to W. Kenya

General Description

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long. NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} . HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August ; 2500-3000 m. DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Plants 45-90 cm. high. Corm 2.5-3 cm. in diameter, the tunics membranous or ± fibrous. Leaves ± 5, mostly basal, at least the uppermost inserted well above the ground, and sheathing for ± 1/2 its length, the lower leaves reaching to ± the base of the spike, narrowly lanceolate, 9-15(-20) mm. wide, neither the midrib not the margins noticeably thickened. Stem usually unbranched, occasionally with up to 3 lateral branches, 4-6 mm. in diameter at the base of the spike. spike (6-)9-15-flowered, straight below, arched outward above; bracts 3.5-5.5(-7) cm. long, imbricate, usually red or reddish-purple (uniformly white in the only known population from Kenya). Flowers either predominantly white, but the lower 3 tepals greenish at least apically, the distal parts of the dorsal tepals sometimes flushed reddish, or in plants from northern Uganda and Sudan, the tepals bright red to orange; perianth-tube ± 3.5 cm. long, the lower part straight and slender, the upper part curved at base and horizontal or ascending, ± 2 cm. long, also cylindric; tepals unequal, the dorsal largest, (1.2-)1.4-1.8 cm. long, extending horizontally, upper laterals 8-10 mm. long, the lower tepals 5-7 mm. long, nearly linear and extending forward. Filaments ± 4 cm. long, exserted ± 1 cm. from the tube; anthers 7-8 mm. long, ultimately exceeding the dorsal tepal. Style dividing opposite the middle of the anthers, the branches 5-7 mm. long. Capsules ovoid, ± 1.5 cm. long.

NOTE. The enlarged red floral bracts partially concealing the small flowers make the SPECIES easy to recognize. The flowers themselves have a long dorsal tepal and reduced and almost vestigial lower tepals similar to those of {i}G. schweinfurthii{/i} and it is to this SPECIES that {i}G. dichrous{/i} is related. Flower colour varies across its range. Plants from the south of its range have white flowers, with the dorsal tepal flushed red above and the lower tepals greenish, but specimens from southern Sudan all the tepals are entirely red to orange. Plants from the Cherangani Hills, W. Kenya, have both the bracts and flowers white with green highlights but otherwise seem to match {i}G. dichrous{/i} .

Habitat

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

HAB. Mountains, usually in rock oucrops, sometimes on cliffs; 2500-3000 m.; flowering June to August

Distribution

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

Kenya Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151! Uganda : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34! Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!; RANGE: Sudan

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

DISTR. U 1, 3; K 3;

  • Kenya
    • Trans-Nzoia District:: Cherangani Hills, Kipto (plants flowered in cultivation in Britain, July 1971), Mabberley & McCall 151!
  • Uganda
    • : Elgon, alpine zone, Aug. 1952, Saunders & Hancock 34!
    • Karamoja District:: Mt. Debasien, near summit, 16 June 1942, Eggeling 5799! & Morongole, 16 June 1942, Dale 289!;

Type Material

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Type: Uganda, Elgon, {i}Lankester{/i} (K, holo.!)

Literature

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

in Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 4, 11: 426 (1989); Gladiolus Trop. Afr.: 266 (1996).

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Uganda
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Sudan

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.
  • 2 Flora of Tropical East Africa (1996) Iridaceae by Peter Goldblatt
  • 3 Peter Goldblatt (1996) Iridaceae. Flora of Tropical East Africa

 Information From

Flora of Tropical East Africa (FTEA)
http://kew.org/efloras/
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2004. eFloras: Iridaceae. [online] Available at: http://kew.org/efloras/ [Accessed 2013-08-02]
  • A All Rights Reserved
  • B http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/
eFloras: Iridaceae
http://kew.org/efloras/
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2004. eFloras: Iridaceae. [online] Available at: http://kew.org/efloras/ [Accessed 2012-06-22]
  • C All Rights Reserved
  • D © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
eMonocot
http://families.e-monocot.org/
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • E Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • F See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.