Calyptronoma Griseb.
  • Fl. Brit. W. I.: 518 (1864) 

Notes: Distribution: Caribbean

General Description

Moderate, solitary, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem stout, erect, becoming bare, irregularly ringed with leaf scars. Leaves pinnate, erect or ±horizontal, arching, marcescent; sheath becoming open opposite the petiole, not forming a crownshaft, expanded and thicker basally, margins fibrous, both surfaces covered with waxy, caducous tomentum, thinner adaxially; petiole relatively short, deeply grooved adaxially, rounded abaxially; rachis adaxially grooved near the base, flat and laterally channelled distally; leaflets narrow, lanceolate, wider at the middle, tapering to a pointed tip, single-fold, adaxial surface lightly waxy, abaxial surface with thin waxy tomentum and scales along the midrib, midrib and 2 pairs of lateral ribs more evident abaxially, transverse veinlets not evident. Inflorescences solitary, interfoliar, becoming infrafoliar, erect at first, pendulous later, branched to 1(–4) orders, protandrous; peduncle stout, elongate, elliptic in cross-section; prophyll tubular, dorsiventrally flattened, with 2, rather wide, lateral keels, pointed, splitting apically and ventrally, woody, lightly waxy, tomentose, inserted at the base of the peduncle; peduncular bract tubular, pointed, stiff, thinner than the prophyll, lightly waxy and tomentose, inserted about halfway along the peduncle, often shed before the prophyll leaving a ruffled scar, subsequent peduncular bracts few, short, spirally inserted; rachis ca. 2/3 as long as the peduncle; rachis bracts short, wide and irregularly notched to pointed, ovate distally; lower branches with a short bare portion, then branched 1(–2) times into rachillae; rachillae moderate, rather short and crowded, bearing rows of partly sunken, short, rounded bracts, each subtending a triad of flowers borne in a pit; floral bracteoles 3, the first bracteole narrow elongate, the second short, wide, truncate, the third short, pointed. Staminate flowers lateral and outside of the pistillate flower in the pit; sepals 3, distinct, unequal, long, narrow, ± keeled, rounded or pointed distally, imbricate basally, chaffy; petals 3, adnate basally to the receptacle, connate for 2/3 their length in a tube, tips valvate; stamens 6, filaments fleshy, connate and adnate to the receptacle for 2/3 their length, the receptacle elongating at anthesis, forming a stalk-like base to the androecium, the androecium hence far-exserted distally, the filaments terete, anthers sagittate, dorsifixed near the base, introrse, versatile and horizontal at anthesis, connective tanniniferous; pistillode 3-lobed with minute tips or lacking. Pollen ellipsoidal, usually with either slight or obvious asymmetry; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, perforate-rugulate or rugulate-insulate, aperture margin slightly finer or psilate; longest axis 24–49 µm. Post-meiotic tetrads tetrahedral [3/3]. Pistillate flowers asymmetrically triangular in bud; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, narrow, briefly keeled, pointed, margins irregular; petals 3, connate in a tube with short valvate apices, upper 1/4 shed as a circumscissile cap; staminodes completely connate, urn-shaped, inflated above the corolla tube at anthesis, white, membranous, exserted, pushing off the corolla cap, the apex briefly 6-toothed; gynoecium trilocular, triovulate, ± 3-angled, adaxial side longest, style long, cylindrical, stigmatic lobes 3, short, linear, ovule large, anatropous. Fruit ovoid, 1-seeded, stigmatic remains basal; epicarp smooth, granular when dry, mesocarp fleshy with stout fibres anastomosing distally, one large fibre conspicuous, endocarp thin, colourless, tough, with a circular operculum over the embryo. Seed globose-ellipsoidal, raphe unbranched, encircling the seed, hilum short, basal, endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology: 2n = 28.

Diagnostic Description

Erect pinnate-leaved tree palms from the Caribbean, distinctive in the inflorescence with many rachillae radiating from the tip of the peduncle and inflated staminodal tube in the pistillate flower.


Leaf (Wessels Boer 1968, Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b), and flower (Stauffer and Endress 2003).


In swamps, near the ocean and beside streams, and in wet places in the mountains.


Three species in the Greater Antilles.


The leaves resemble those of the coconut but have shorter leaflets, much used for thatch.

Common Names

Manac palm, long thatch.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Puerto Rico


  • 1 J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. Continental Publishing, Deurne.

 Information From

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet Accessed on 21/04/2013
  • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  • B
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.