Calyptrocalyx Blume
  • Rumphia 2: 103 (1843) 


Notes: Distribution: Maluku to New Guinea

General Description

Solitary or more often clustering, small to moderate, unarmed, pleonanthic, monoecious palms. Stem erect, usually becoming bare, conspicuously ringed with leaf scars. Leaves undivided with bifid apices and pinnately ribbed, or pinnate, marcescent or neatly abscising, a crownshaft scarcely developed; sheaths soon splitting opposite the petiole, scaly or not, the margins usually fibrous; petiole absent, short or long, adaxially channelled, abaxially rounded; lamina bifid with acute or lobed tips, or leaflets 1–several ribbed, acute, acuminate or sometimes toothed, concolorous, variously scaly or glabrous. Inflorescences solitary or multiple, interfoliar, protandrous, spicate; peduncle winged at the base, erect or pendulous, elongate; prophyll inserted at the very base, ± included within the sheaths, common to all axes where inflorescences multiple, tubular, flattened, ± 2-winged, tending to disintegrate into fibres apically; peduncular bract inserted near the peduncle base, tubular, open apically, shorter than the spike and not enclosing it, persistent or rotting on the inflorescence; spike short to elongate bearing a dense spiral of low, rounded bracts forming the lower lips of usually deep floral pits, each enclosing a triad except at the apex where enclosing paired or solitary staminate flowers, flowers exserted one at a time; floral bracteoles small, included. Staminate flowers sessile or briefly pedicellate; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate, often keeled; petals 3, distinct, about twice as long as the sepals, valvate, marked within by stamen impressions; stamens 6–140, filaments elongate, linear, erect or usually inflexed at the apex in bud, distinct or, in Calyptrocalyx doxanthus, united for 3/4 their length to form a staminal tube, anthers dorsifixed, erect or versatile, mostly deeply sagittate basally, latrorse; pistillode sometimes lacking or slender and ± club-shaped, about as long as stamens. Pollen ellipsoidal, asymmetric to pyriform; aperture a distal sulcus; ectexine tectate, perforate, or perforate-rugulate, aperture margin similar or slightly finer; infratectum columellate; longest axis 36–61 µm [4/27]. Pistillate flowers ± globular; sepals 3, distinct, imbricate; petals 3, distinct, exceeding the sepals, broadly imbricate except at the minutely valvate tips; staminodes (2–)3–9; gynoecium unilocular, uniovulate, ellipsoidal with apical button-like or trifid stigma, ovule hemianatropous, attached laterally above the middle of the locule. Fruit small to large, orange, bright red, pink or purplish black at maturity, perianth whorls persistent, stigmatic remains apical or slightly eccentric; epicarp smooth, fragile, glabrous or rarely pilose or with scattered scales, mesocarp fleshy or dry, white or pink, endocarp thin, closely adhering to or separating from the seed. Seed subbasally to laterally attached, hilum short to elongate, raphe branches anastomosing, endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal. Germination adjacent-ligular; eophyll bifid. Cytology: 2n = 32.

Diagnostic Description

Small to moderate, solitary or clustering undergrowth palms of rain forest in the Moluccas and New Guinea, with spicate inflorescences with the peduncular bract inserted just above the prophyll at the base of the peduncle.

Morphology

Leaf (Tomlinson 1961), root (Seubert 1998a, 1998b), and fruit (Essig 2002).

Biology

Undergrowth palms of primary rain forest occurring at elevations from sea level to ca. 1000 m in mountains, usually on montane slopes with well-drained soils, more rarely along streams or sometimes gregarious in swampy or poorly drained areas.

Distribution

About 27 species, one widespread in the Moluccas, the remainder in New Guinea.

Uses

Not recorded.

Common Names

Not recorded.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Maluku
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea

  Bibliography

  • 1 J. Dransfield & N. Uhl & C. Asmussen & W.J. Baker & M. Harley & C. Lewis, Genera Palmarum. The evolution and classification of palms. 2008
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. Continental Publishing, Deurne.

 Information From

Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
http://www.palmweb.org
Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
  • A Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
  • B http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.