Bognera Mayo & Nicolson
  • Taxon 33: 690 (1984) 

Notes: Distribution: N. Brazil

General Description

Evergreen herb with creeping rhizome; leaves usually up to four, cataphylls marcescent and persistent; petiole long, slightly pilose, weakly geniculate at apex, sheath short; leaf blade ovate, primary lateral veins parallel-pinnate, 12-14 on each side of the strong middle vein and secondary laterals also pinnate between the primary veins, third order veins clearly reticulate, veins on upper side glabrous but underneath minutely pilose along veins, marginal collective vein inconspicuous. Peduncle shorter than petioles, subtended by cataphylls. Spathe convolute in lower two thirds, unconstricted, persistent. Spadix equal or slightly longer than spathe, fertile to apex, female zone laxly flowered and completely adnate to spathe, separated from male zone by very sparsely flowered sterile zone, male zone densely flowered. Flowers unisexual, naked. Female flowers in somewhat distant spirals, without staminodes, ovary depressed globose, one-locular, ovule one, anatropous, funicle short, placenta basal; stigma sessile, discoid to sub-hemispherical, papillose, as broad as ovary. Sterile flowers consisting usually of four staminodes, those of the lower flowers more-or-less free and roundish, those of the upper flowers nearly completely connate and irregularly formed. Male flowers 3 to 4-androus, the stamens connate into a synandrium, synandrium irregularly rhombic, truncate, flat to somewhat domed, thecae lateral, dehiscing apically by a very broad slit; pollen inaperturate, large, spherical to ellipsoid or ovoid, exine smooth (psilate).

HABIT : evergreen herbs with creeping rhizomatous stem, cataphylls marcescent, persistent and entire, drying reddish-brown. LEAVES : erect, several. PETIOLE : shortly-sheathed, pilose, weakly geniculate at apex and base. BLADE : ovate, base rounded, apex acute; primary lateral veins pinnate, ca. 12 per side, glabrous adaxially, minutely pilose abaxially especially along veins, running into marginal vein, secondary laterals arcuate and ± parallel to primaries, finer veins reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary, erect. PEDUNCLE : shorter than petiole, subtended by 3 cataphylls. SPATHE : erect, broadly ovoid, convolute in lower two-thirds, not constricted, apiculate, persistent. SPADIX : subequal to spathe, fertile to apex or most apical flowers sterile, female zone laxly flowered and entirely adnate to spathe, separated from male zone by very sparsely flowered sterile zone, male zone densely flowered. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 3-4-androus, stamens connate into a synandrium, synandria truncate, irregularly rhombic, somewhat domed, usually with central slit, common connective very thick, thecae ellipsoid-oblong, lateral, dehiscing apically by very broad slit. POLLEN : inaperturate, broadly ellipsoid, large (50-60 µm.), exine scabrate to nearly smooth (psilate). STERILE MALE FLOWERS : each usually consisting of 4 staminodes, those of lower flowers ± free and roundish, upper ones nearly completely connate and irregularly formed, sometimes all 4 connate with a central slit. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecia arranged in somewhat distant spirals, ovary depressed globose, 1-locular, ovule 1, anatropous, funicle short, placenta basal, stigma sessile, discoid, broad. BERRY : unknown. SEED : unknown.

Diagnostic Description

Evergreen herb with creeping rhizomatous stem; petiole weakly geniculate; leaf blade simple, entire, ovate; female zone of spadix entirely adnate to spathe, with flowers laxly arranged; male flower forming a truncate synandrium. Differs from Dieffenbachia in lacking aerial stem, reticulate higher order leaf venation, female flowers without staminodes.


Tropical humid forest (“terra firme”); terrestrial, creeping in leaf litter on sandy soil.


N. Brazil.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North


  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. Continental Publishing, Deurne.
  • 3 Bogner, J. The Genus Bognera Mayo and Nicolson (Araceae). Aroideana 31, 14 (2008).
  • 4 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 5 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
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