Zomicarpella N.E.Br.
  • Gard. Chron., n.s., 16: 266 (1881) 


Notes: Distribution: Colombia, Peru, N. Brazil

General Description

Small herbs with rhizome or tuber. Leaves 1-3, petiole with short sheath, leaf blade cordate-sagittate to hastate-sagittate, plain green or variegated with pale green blotches; venation reticulate, primary lateral veins mostly arising at petiole insertion and forming a submarginal collective vein or running into margin or with a second, thinner collective vein very near the margin, higher order venation also reticulate and thinner. Inflorescences 1-2 in one sympodium, appearing with the leaves. Peduncle slender, longer or shorter than petiole. Spathe oblong-lanceolate, fully expanded and unconstricted (Z. maculata) or somewhat constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, blade expanded, erect at first and then reflexed, persistent in fruit (Z. amazonica). Spadix longer or shorter then spathe, female zone adnate to spathe, contiguous or separated from male zone (Z. maculata), male zone subequal to female or longer, cylindric, terminal appendix slender and more or less elongate. Flowers unisexual, perigone absent. Male flower 1-androus, stamens densely or laxly arranged, free, anthers sessile or subsessile, filament short but distinct then, connective flat and inconspicuous, thecae opposite, subglobose, dehiscing by apical pore. Pollen extruded in strands, inaperturate, spherical, small (18-)20-30(-31)mm in diam.), exine spinose. Female flower with ellipsoid-oblong or depressed bottle-shaped gynoecium; ovary 1-locular, ovules 1-6, anatropous, funicle short, placenta basal; stylar region short, distinct, narrower than ovary; stigma small, discoid-hemispheric. Infructescence with several berries. Berry (Z. amazonica) depressed-globose, whitish, style and stigma remnant persistent, 1-3 seeded. Seed ellipsoid to ellipsoid-oblong, testa thin, smooth, whitish (Z. amazonica) or maculate (Z. maculata), raphe conspicuous, embryo ellipsoid to pear-shaped and small, endosperm copious. Laticifers anastomosing and with clear latex. Chromosome number: 2n = 26 (Z. amazonica).

Laticifers anastomosing. HABIT : small herb with creeping rhizome. LEAVES : 1-3. PETIOLE : sheath short. BLADE : cordate-sagittate to hastate-sagittate, often variegated with pale green blotches; primary lateral veins mostly arising at petiole insertion, running into margin or forming a submarginal collective vein, higher order venation reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium, appearing with leaves. PEDUNCLE : slender, longer or shorter than petiole. SPATHE : oblong-lanceolate, fully expanded and unconstricted (Z. maculata), or constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, blade expanded, erect at first, then reflexed, persistent in fruit (Z. amazonica). SPADIX : longer or shorter than spathe, female zone adnate to spathe, contiguous or separated from male by short axis (Z. maculata), male zone subequal to female, cylindric, terminal appendix more slender, ± elongate. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 1-androus, stamens densely arranged, anthers subsessile, filaments short but distinct, connective narrow, inconspicuous, thecae opposite, subglobose, dehiscing by apical pore. POLLEN : extruded in strands, inaperturate, spherical, small (18-20 µm. diam.), exine spinose. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium ellipsoid-oblong, or depressed-bottle-shaped, somewhat laterally compressed, ovary 1-locular, ovules 1-6, anatropous, funicle short or very short, placenta basal, style short, distinct, stigma small, discoid-hemispheric. BERRY : depressed-globose, whitish, stigma remnant persistent, 1-3-seeded. SEED : irregularly ellipsoid, somewhat compressed laterally, testa thin, smooth, whitish, raphe conspicuous, hilum somewhat sunken, purple, embryo ellipsoid to pear-shaped, small, endosperm copious.

Diagnostic Description

Small, rhizomatous geophytes; leaf blade cordate-sagittate, fine venation reticulate; female zone of spadix adnate to spathe, appendix slender; flowers unisexual, perigone absent. Differs from Filarum, Ulearum and Zomicarpa in the combination of creeping rhizomatous stems, cordate-sagittate leaves, slender spadix appendix, stamen connectives not prolonged and 1- to 6-ovulate ovaries.

Ecology

Plants growing in tropical rainforests in "terra firme"; geophytes on forest floor in deep shade.

Habitat

Tropical humid forest (“terra firme”); geophytes on forest floor.

Distribution

Two species in Colombia, Peru and Brazil.

Colombia, Peru, N. Brazil.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Western South America Colombia
  • Peru

  Bibliography

  • 1 Bogner, J. (2007). Zomicarpella maculata (Araceae) rediscovered, with notes on the tribe Zomicarpeae. Willdenowia 37: 523-534.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Bogner, J. The Genus Zomicarpella N. E. Br. (Araceae). Aroideana; Journal of the International Aroid Society 32, 18 (2009).
  • 4 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 5 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
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WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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