Symplocarpus Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton
  • Veg. Mat. Med. 1: 124 (1817) 

Notes: , nom. cons. Distribution: Temp. Asia, E. Canada, NC. & E. U.S.A.

General Description

HABIT : fairly large, seasonally dormant herbs, rhizome thick, erect with thick roots. LEAVES : few. PETIOLE : fairly broad, sulcate, sheath short. BLADE : subcordate- to cordate-ovate; primary lateral veins pinnate, arching towards apex, running into inconspicuous marginal vein, secondary laterals and higher order venation reticulate to transverse-reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium, appearing before or with leaves. PEDUNCLE : only shortly exserted above ground. SPATHE : thick, boat-shaped or conchiform, lower part convolute, upper part somewhat to widely gaping, apex 2-keeled, rostrate, curving forwards. SPADIX : stipitate, subglobose, hidden within spathe. FLOWERS : bisexual, perigoniate; tepals 4, fornicate, imbricate. STAMENS : 4, filaments flattened, connective slender, thecae oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slit. POLLEN : monosulcate, ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 33 µm.), exine reticulate, apertural exine coarsely verrucate. GYNOECIUM : ovary somewhat immersed in spadix axis, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous, funicle very short, placenta apical-parietal, style long-attenuate, stigma punctate-discoid. BERRY : tepals and style persistent to ripe fruiting stage, seed and base of berry immersed in spongy spadix axis, infructescence ± globose. SEED : globose, testa thin, smooth, embryo globose, endosperm very sparse, only a single cell layer thick.

Diagnostic Description

Seasonally dormant geophytes with thick, erect rhizomes; leaf blade subcordate to cordate-ovate, fine venation reticulate to transverse-reticulate; spadix stipitate, subglobose; spathe boat-shaped or hooded, enclosing the spadix; flowers bisexual, periogoniate, with 4 tepals. Differs from Lysichiton in dark, boat-shaped or hooded spathe inserted just below spadix, spadix enclosed within spathe, subglobose with a short stipe.


Temperate damp woodlands, rarely open wetlands, from near sea level to ca. 900m. alt.; usually in shaded sites, frequent near water courses; S. foetidus and S. renifolius flower in early spring before the leaves appear and fruit in the summer of the same year; S. nipponicus flowers after the leaves appear and the fruits ripen in the following spring.


Temp. Asia, E. Canada, NC. & E. U.S.A.

Distribution Map

  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China Manchuria
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Korea
  • Russian Far East Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Nova Scotia
  • Ontario
  • Québec
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Minnesota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Maryland
  • North Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia


  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 3 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from
  • B Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • C See You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.