Spirodela Schleid.
  • Linnaea 13: 391 (1839) 


Notes: Distribution: Cosmopolitan

General Description

Fronds with (5)7-16(21) veins, with several layers of air spaces, with pigment cells, and with raphids and druses, surrounded at the base by a bifid scale (prophyll) covering the place of attachment of the roots; roots (5)7-16(21) per frond of which only 1-5 (never all) perforate the scale. Utricular scale-like leaf surrounding the flowers with narrow opening at the top; Pistil with 1 amphitropous ovule or 2-5 anatropous ovules; seeds 0.7-2.0 mm long, with 12-22 longitudinal ribs. Two spp., one widely distributed, one in South America.

Diagnostic Description

Free floating aquatic plant reduced to small, leaf-like, poorly differentiated fronds; roots and veins present. Differs from Landoltia in roots usually 7to 21 of which only 1 to 5, but never all, perforate the scale; veins usually 7-16; leaf surrounding the flowers with narrow opening at the top.

Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
  • Introduced distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Africa East Tropical Africa Kenya
  • Tanzania
  • Uganda
  • Macaronesia Madeira
  • Northeast Tropical Africa Chad
  • Northern Africa Egypt
  • Morocco
  • South Tropical Africa Malawi
  • Mozambique
  • Zambia
  • Zimbabwe
  • Southern Africa Botswana
  • Cape Provinces
  • Free State
  • KwaZulu-Natal
  • Northern Provinces
  • West Tropical Africa Benin
  • Ghana
  • Ivory Coast
  • Nigeria
  • Senegal
  • Togo
  • West-Central Tropical Africa Burundi
  • Central African Republic
  • Congo
  • Rwanda
  • Zaire
  • Western Indian Ocean Madagascar
  • Mauritius
  • Asia-Temperate Caucasus North Caucasus
  • Transcaucasus
  • China China North-Central
  • China South-Central
  • China Southeast
  • Manchuria
  • Qinghai
  • Tibet
  • Eastern Asia Japan
  • Taiwan
  • Middle Asia Kazakhstan
  • Russian Far East Kamchatka
  • Khabarovsk
  • Kuril Is.
  • Primorye
  • Sakhalin
  • Siberia Altay
  • Buryatiya
  • Irkutsk
  • Krasnoyarsk
  • Tuva
  • West Siberia
  • Yakutskiya
  • Western Asia Iran
  • Lebanon-Syria
  • Palestine
  • Turkey
  • Asia-Tropical Indian Subcontinent India
  • Maldives
  • Nepal
  • Indo-China Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Christmas I.
  • Cocos (Keeling) Is.
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Australasia Australia New South Wales
  • Norfolk Is.
  • Northern Territory
  • Queensland
  • South Australia
  • Tasmania
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia
  • New Zealand Chatham Is.
  • New Zealand North
  • New Zealand South
  • Europe Eastern Europe Baltic States
  • Belarus
  • Central European Russia
  • East European Russia
  • North European Russia
  • Northwest European Russia
  • South European Russia
  • Ukraine
  • Middle Europe Austria
  • Belgium
  • Czechoslovakia
  • Germany
  • Hungary
  • Netherlands
  • Poland
  • Switzerland
  • Northern Europe Denmark
  • Finland
  • Great Britain
  • Ireland
  • Norway
  • Southeastern Europe Albania
  • Bulgaria
  • Greece
  • Italy
  • Kriti
  • Romania
  • Sicilia
  • Turkey-in-Europe
  • Yugoslavia
  • Southwestern Europe Corse
  • France
  • Portugal
  • Sardegna
  • Spain
  • Northern America Eastern Canada New Brunswick
  • Nova Scotia
  • Prince Edward I.
  • Québec
  • Mexico Mexican Pacific Is.
  • Mexico Central
  • Mexico Gulf
  • Mexico Northeast
  • Mexico Northwest
  • Mexico Southeast
  • Mexico Southwest
  • North-Central U.S.A. Illinois
  • Iowa
  • Kansas
  • Minnesota
  • Missouri
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • Oklahoma
  • South Dakota
  • Wisconsin
  • Northeastern U.S.A. Connecticut
  • Indiana
  • Maine
  • Masachusettes
  • Michigan
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode I.
  • Vermont
  • West Virginia
  • Northwestern U.S.A. Colorado
  • Idaho
  • Montana
  • Oregon
  • Washington
  • Wyoming
  • South-Central U.S.A. Texas
  • Southeastern U.S.A. Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maryland
  • Mississippi
  • North Carolina
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Virginia
  • Southwestern U.S.A. Arizona
  • California
  • Nevada
  • Utah
  • Western Canada Alberta
  • British Columbia
  • Manitoba
  • Saskatchewan
  • Pacific North-Central Pacific Hawaii
  • Southwestern Pacific Fiji
  • New Caledonia
  • Vanuatu
  • Southern America Brazil Brazil North
  • Brazil Northeast
  • Brazil South
  • Brazil Southeast
  • Brazil West-Central
  • Caribbean Cuba
  • Dominican Republic
  • Haiti
  • Jamaica
  • Leeward Is.
  • Puerto Rico
  • Windward Is.
  • Central America Belize
  • Central American Pacific Is.
  • Costa Rica
  • El Salvador
  • Guatemala
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panamá
  • Northern South America Guyana
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela
  • Southern South America Argentina Northeast
  • Argentina Northwest
  • Argentina South
  • Chile Central
  • Paraguay
  • Uruguay
  • Western South America Bolivia
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • Peru
Introduced into
  • Africa Macaronesia Canary Is.

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Landolt, E. Lemnaceae The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants. 4, (1998).
  • 3 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
Global Biodiversity Information Facility
http://data.gbif.org
  • B All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
http://e-monocot.org
eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
  • C Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
  • D See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement.