Schismatoglottis Zoll. & Moritzi
  • H.Zollinger, Syst. Verz.: 83 (1854) 


Notes: Distribution: Trop. & Subtrop. Asia to SW. Pacific

General Description

HABIT : small to large, evergreen herbs, rarely shortly, densely or long-pubescent, stem rhizomatous or epigeal, shortly erect. LEAVES : numerous, rarely distichous. PETIOLE : sheath less than half petiole length, sometimes with long apical ligule. BLADE : narrow-elliptic, elliptic, lanceolate, oblanceolate, ovate, obovate, cordate, cordate-sagittate, sometimes variegated with paler or silvery green, white or yellow; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into distinct marginal vein, secondary and tertiary laterals parallel-pinnate, higher order venation transverse-reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-3 (or more) in each floral sympodium. PEDUNCLE : shorter than petiole. SPATHE : constricted between tube and blade, sometimes only slightly so, rarely not at all, tube convolute, persistent, blade thinner, erect, broadly boat-shaped, gaping at anthesis, caducous at anthesis, rarely marcescent, usually white to cream, sometimes greenish-yellow, very rarely pink, cuspidate to acuminate. SPADIX : shorter than or equalling spathe, lower part consisting of cylindric to conoid female zone, free or partially adnate to spathe, sometimes bearing sterile organs at the very base, upper part of spadix usually ± clavate, sometimes subcylindric, either fertile male below and sterile terminally, or sterile below and fertile male terminally, or sterile below, centrally fertile male and sterile terminally, lowermost sterile zone sometimes very laxly flowered, often constricted. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 2-3-androus, stamens very short to long, filaments usually well-developed, sometimes connate basally, always with distinctive tannin cells (dark in dried specimens), connective usually rather slender, sometimes thicker apically, anthers truncate, often concave apically, thecae opposite, cylindric or obconic to ovoid, dehiscing by apical, broadly elliptic, or bilobed pore. POLLEN : extruded in strands, inaperturate, ellipsoid to oblong, small (mean 20 µm., range 15-26 µm.), exine perfectly psilate, rarely rugulate to verruculate (S. spruceana). STERILE MALE FLOWERS : staminodes less compressed than stamens, obpyramidal to clavate, usually truncate, short to long. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium sometimes accompanied by 1-4 clavate, rarely peltate staminodes with generally distinctly swollen apices, or rarely with sterile flowers scattered among gynoecia, ovary 1-locular, ovules (1-)few to many, anatropous to hemianatropous, funicle rather long, placentae 1-4, parietal, usually extending from base to apex of locule, style absent or very short, sometimes shortly conoid, stigma discoid to capitate, small to as wide as ovary. BERRY : oblong to globose, green or dull yellow or deep red, few to many-seeded. SEED : ellipsoid, testa costate, embryo straight, elongate, endosperm copious.

Diagnostic Description

Small to large, usually terrestrial (sometimes rheophytic) evergreen herbs; leaf blade narrow-elliptic to cordate-sagittate, sometimes variegated, submarginal collective vein absent, fine venation parallel-pinnate to transversely reticulate; spathe constricted, spathe limb deciduous after flowering; spadix usually but not always with terminal zone of sterile flowers; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; anthers truncate, never horned; ovules anatropous to hemianatropous, placentation parietal . Differs from other genera of the Schismatoglottideae in petiole sheath usually not ligulate.

Habitat

Tropical humid forest; terrestrial, forest floor, sometimes rheophytes.

Distribution

Trop. & Subtrop. Asia, SW. Pacific, S. Trop. America.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Asia-Temperate China China Southeast
  • Hainan
  • Eastern Asia Taiwan
  • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Laos
  • Myanmar
  • Thailand
  • Vietnam
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Jawa
  • Lesser Sunda Is.
  • Malaya
  • Maluku
  • Philippines
  • Sulawesi
  • Sumatera
  • Papuasia Bismarck Archipelago
  • New Guinea
  • Solomon Is.
  • Pacific Southwestern Pacific Vanuatu

Included Species

  Bibliography

  • 1 Wong, S.Y., Boyce, P.C., Sofiman bin Othman, A. & Pin, L.C. (2010). Molecular phylogeny of tribe Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) based on two pastid markers and recognition of a new tribe Philonotieae, from the neotropics. Taxon 59: 117-124.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 4 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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