Piptospatha N.E.Br.
  • Gard. Chron., n.s., 11: 138 (1879) 


Notes: Distribution: Thailand to Borneo

General Description

Small to medium-sized evergreen herbs. Stem erect or decumbent, usually more or less condensed. Leaves several; petiole sheath short with long, marcescent ligule; blade elongate-lanceolate to elliptic or oblanceolate, coriaceous, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into distinct marginal vein, secondary laterals and higher order venation parallel-pinnate. Inflorescence solitary, usually nodding; peduncle subequal to or longer than petiole (rarely very short - P. brevipedunculata). Spathe stoutly ellipsoid, not constricted, often pink, lower part persistent and cup-like, upper part slightly gaping at anthesis, caducous or persistent, cuspidate to acuminate. Spadix sessile with ± oblique insertion to shortly stipitate with the stipe adnate to the spathe, sometimes with staminodes or sterile ?pistils (homology unclear in some cases) at extreme base or a robust basal sterile zone; female zone cylindric; pistils free or cohering to neighbouring ones; ovary 1-locular; ovules man;, placentae 2-4, parietal, or parietal and basal, or basal; stigma ± sessile or elevated on a short style, usually as broad as ovary and more or less contiguous with adjacent ones; male zone contiguous with female, or separated by a short interstice of staminodes, cylindric to ellipsoid, equal in diameter to female, obtuse; stamens arranged in pairs or irregular, free, compressed, anthers truncate, connective ± flat or expanded apically or with conical beak (P. insignis) overtopping thecae; thecae oblong-ellipsoid, dehiscing by apical pore; pollen inaperturate, ellipsoid, small to medium-sized (mean 25 µm (Grayum, 1992: 21)), exine psilate; appendix short, reduced to a few terminal sterile stamens, or absent; staminodes of appendix truncate, subclavate, prismatic. Infructescence a cluster of berries subtended by the obconic spathe base, or held within the entirely persistent, finally disintegrating spathe; berry obovoid to subcylindric, small, green; seed elongate-ellipsoid to cylindric, with long, curved micropylar appendage; testa slightly costate; embryo elongate, endosperm copious.

HABIT : small to medium-sized evergreen herbs, stem erect or decumbent. LEAVES : several. PETIOLE : sheath short with long, marcescent ligule. BLADE : elongate-lanceolate to elliptic or oblanceolate, coriaceous, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into distinct marginal vein, secondary laterals and higher order venation parallel-pinnate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary, usually nodding. PEDUNCLE : subequal to or longer than petiole. SPATHE : stoutly ellipsoid, not constricted, often pink, lower part persistent and cup-like, upper part slightly gaping at anthesis, caducous or deliquescent, cuspidate to acuminate. SPADIX : sessile with ± oblique insertion, sometimes with sterile female flowers at extreme base, female zone cylindric, shorter and contiguous with male, or separated by a short zone of sterile male flowers, male zone cylindric, equal in thickness to female, obtuse, fertile to apex or with a few sterile terminal flowers. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 1-2-androus, stamens free, compressed, anthers truncate, connective ± flat or expanded apically or with conical beak (P. insignis), overtopping thecae, thecae oblong-ellipsoid, dehiscing by apical pore. POLLEN : inaperturate, ellipsoid, small to medium-sized (mean 25 µm.), exine psilate. STERILE MALE FLOWERS : apparently composed of a single truncate, subclavate, prismatic staminode. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium free or cohering to neighbouring ones, ovary 1-locular, ovules many, hemiorthotropous to almost orthotropous and erect, funicle long, placentae 2-4, parietal or parietal and basal, stigma sessile, as broad as ovary, contiguous with adjacent ones. BERRY : obovoid, green. SEED : elongate-ellipsoid to cylindric, with long, curved micropylar appendage, testa slightly costate, embryo elongate, endosperm copious.

Small to medium-sized evergreen obligate rheophytes; Stem erect or decumbent, usually more or less condensed. Leaves several; petiole semi-terete to canaliculate on upper side; petiolar sheath short with long, marcescent ligule; leaf blade elongate-lanceolate to elliptic or oblanceolate, coriaceous, basally cuneate, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into distinct marginal vein, secondary laterals and higher order venation either parallel-pinnate or tessellate. Inflorescence solitary per module, emerging orthotropic, maturing (prior to the onset of anthesis) anatropic; peduncle subequal to or longer than petiole; spathe stoutly ellipsoid, not constricted, usually pink, rarely white, lower part persistent and cup-like, upper part inflating and then gaping at anthesis, soon-caducous, cuspidate to acuminate, often with a pronounced terminal rostrum becoming reflexed at anthesis, interior frequently with one to several pronounced crests, especially in the distal part; spadix sessile with oblique insertion, often with staminodes basally; pistillate flower zone cylindric; pistils connate into a syncarpium, or free but cohering to neighboring ones; ovary 1-locular; ovules many, placenta 2-4, parietal; stigma 6 sessile, usually as broad as ovary and more or less contiguous with adjacent ones; staminate flower zone contiguous with pistillate, cylindric to ellipsoid, equal in thickness to pistillate, obtuse; stamens arranged in pairs or irregular, free, compressed, anthers truncate, connective 6 flat or expanded apically or with conspicuous conical beak overtopping thecae; thecae oblong-ellipsoid, dehiscing by apical pore; appendix absent. Infructescence a cluster of berries subtended by a narrow to wide-flaring obconic spathe base carried on an erect peduncle, spadix above fruiting portion degrading and shed entirely soon after fertilization; berry obovoid to subcylindric, small, green, either fused into a syncarpium (most species), or free but cohering to adjacent berries. Seed numerous, elongate-ellipsoid to cylindric, with long, curved micropylar appendage, testa slightly costate, embryo elongate, endosperm copious.

Diagnostic Description

Small to medium-sized rheophytes; petiole sheath with a long marcescent ligule; leaf blade apex with tubular mucro, fine venation parallel-pinnate; spathe blade falling or deliquescent after anthesis; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; anther thecae lacking horn- or needle-like projections. Differs from Schismatoglottis in lacking spathe constriction, long-ligulate petiole sheaths, spadix fertile almost to apex and hemiorthotropous to orthotropous ovules.

Habitat

Obligate rheophytes along streams and by waterfalls in lowland to lower montane rainforest areas.

Tropical humid forest; rheophytes.

Distribution

11 species from Southern Thailand to West Malesia. In Malesia: 11 species, Malay Peninsula and Borneo.

Thailand to Borneo.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Specimens
Found in
  • Asia-Tropical Indo-China Thailand
  • Malesia Borneo
  • Malaya

  Bibliography

  • 1 Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. (2012). The Araceae of Indomalaya II: Piptospatha N.E.Br.. Malayan Nature Journal 64: 9-32.
  • 2 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 3 Bogner, J. & Hay, A. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia 2: Aridarum, Bucephalandra, Phymatarum and Piptospatha Telopea. Telopea; Contributions from the National Herbarium of New South Wales 9, 222 (2000).
  • 4 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 5 Boyce, P.C. & Wong, S.Y. Studies on Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) of Borneo XXIII: Piptospatha colata and P. deceptrix, taxonomic novelties from Borneo. Gardens' Bulletin. Singapore 65, 17 (2013).
  • 6 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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