Phymatarum M.Hotta
  • Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto Imp. Univ., Ser. B, Biol. 32(1): 29 (1965) 


Notes: Distribution: Borneo

General Description

Small herbs. Stem creeping to decumbent. Leaves several; petiolar sheath fairly short with long marcescent ligule; blade narrowly elliptic, somewhat coriaceous, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into conspicuous marginal vein, alternating with interprimary and secondary venation; higher order venation inconspicuously transverse-reticulate. Inflorescence solitary; peduncle erect, shorter or subequal to petiole. Spathe constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, persistent, green, blade longer, boat-shaped and gaping at anthesis, whitish, cuspidate, caducous after anthesis. Spadix at extreme base bearing a few neuter organs or not; female zone conoid to subcylindric, basally adnate to spathe; pistils depressed-globose; ovary 1-locular; ovules many, hemiorthotropous, funicle long; placenta basal; stigma sessile, slightly concave centrally, narrower than ovary, very thinly discoid; sterile interstice a cylindric to ellipsoid zone of staminodes; staminodes sub-prismatic, tuberculate, flattened or excavated, lowermost either with or without central, short, subulate projection, uppermost more slender, relatively longer, otherwise similar but never with projections; male zone very short and slightly narrower than the interstice; stamens not arranged in male flowers, free, filament short, connective inconspicuous, thecae tuberculate, each ending in a curved horn dehiscing by apical pore; pollen inaperturate, ellipsoid, small (mean 19 µm (Grayum: 1992: 21)) exine psilate; terminal appendix elongate-conoid, bearing sterile male flowers. Fruit a many-seeded, depressed-obovoid, slightly furrowed, greenish-white berry; seed ellipsoid, with long micropylar appendage; testa costate; embryo elongate, straight; endosperm copious.

HABIT : small evergreen herbs, stem creeping to decumbent. LEAVES : several. PETIOLE : sheath fairly short with long marcescent ligule. BLADE : narrowly elliptic, somewhat coriaceous, apex with tubular mucro; primary lateral veins pinnate, running into conspicuous marginal vein, secondary and tertiary laterals parallel-pinnate, higher order venation inconspicuously transverse-reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : solitary. PEDUNCLE : erect, shorter or subequal to petiole. SPATHE : constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, persistent, green, blade longer, boat-shaped and gaping at anthesis, whitish, cuspidate, caducous after anthesis. SPADIX : extreme base bearing a few sterile flowers or not, female zone conoid to subcylindric, basally adnate to spathe, separated from male zone by cylindric to ellipsoid zone of sterile male flowers, male zone very short and slightly narrower, appendix much longer, elongate-conoid, bearing sterile male flowers. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : apparently 1-androus, free, filament short, connective inconspicuous, thecae tuberculate, ending in curved horn, dehiscing by apical pore. STERILE FLOWERS : subprismatic, tuberculate, flattened or excavated, lowermost either with or without central, short, subulate projection, uppermost more slender, relatively longer, otherwise similar but never with projections. POLLEN : inaperturate, ellipsoid, small (mean 19 µm., range 17-22 µm.) exine psilate. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecium depressed-globose, ovary 1-locular, ovules many, hemiorthotropous, funicle long, placenta basal, stigma sessile, slightly concave centrally, much narrower than ovary, very thinly discoid. BERRY : many-seeded, depressed-obovoid, slightly furrowed, greenish-white. SEED : ellipsoid, with long micropylar appendage, testa costate, embryo elongate, straight, endosperm copious.

Diagnostic Description

Small rheophytes, stem creeping or decumbent; petiole sheath with a long marcescent ligule; leaf blade apex with tubular mucro; spathe blade falling after anthesis; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; thecae of each anther with horn- or needle-like projections. Differs from Bucephalandra and Aridarum in constricted spathe. Further differs from Bucephalandra in densely tuberculate male flowers and subprismatic (not broad and flattened) sterile flowers between male and female flowers . Differs from Aridarum in stigma smaller than ovary, upper part of the spadix sterile with distinct appendix of hornless sterile flowers and stamens never excavated apically.

Habitat

Rheophytic at low elevation.

Tropical humid forest; rheophytes.

Distribution

Endemic to Borneo, monotypic.

Borneo.

Distribution Map

 
  • Native distribution
Found in
  • Asia-Tropical Malesia Borneo

  Bibliography

  • 1 Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • 2 Bogner, J. & Hay, A. Schismatoglottideae (Araceae) in Malesia 2: Aridarum, Bucephalandra, Phymatarum and Piptospatha Telopea. Telopea; Contributions from the National Herbarium of New South Wales 9, 222 (2000).
  • 3 Gardens, K.""Royal Bot World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. (2008).
  • 4 Mayo, S.J., Bogner, J. & Boyce, P.C. The Genera of Araceae. (Royal Botanic Gardens Kew: 1997).

 Information From

CATE Araceae
http://araceae.e-monocot.org
Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 14 Dec 2011 . 17 Dec 2011.
  • A All Rights Reserved
eMonocot
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eMonocot. (2010, 1st November). Retrieved Wednesday, 8th February, 2012, from http://e-monocot.org.
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World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
WCSP 2014. 'World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Retrieved 2011 onwards
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